(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Commodore MicroComputer Issue 31"

I 



microcomputers 



September/October 1984 

$2.50 U.S. 

S.i.itl Canada ISSN 0744-8724 



PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE: 



•A Complete List for Commodore Computers 
•Reviews of Databases* Word Processors •Spreadsheets 
Taking Your Computer Overseas 
Add a Hex Keypad to Your PET/CBM 



MM 
I 

■ 

■ 



KriSS; £.£*-"' 



f •■ ;i 

I •-Sjewv. ■ 
ts3£ am 



■H k 



: £-' 5 '' 









fc. 1 



BULK RATE 

U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Permit No. 1094 
St. Cloud, MN 56301 



V? 









r\L-ii 



■ 






Coimnodorc Business Machines, Inc. 
L200 Wilson Drive 
West Chester, PA 19380 
Address { orreclion Requested 




WHY THE COMMODORE 64 ISN'T 

A CLASS BY ITSELF. 




At Commodore, we think it's easier for school children to learn 
about a computer by using it rather than by waiting to use it. 

So, we sell the Commodore 64™ at about half the cost of 
comparable computers. 

With the money you save on the Commodore 64, you can afford 
the things you'll really need: more Commodore 64's. 

In fact you can create a powerful but economical "Local 
Network" with 8 computers sharing one disc drive. 

The Commodore 64 features: 64K memor y, 66 ke y ty pewriter - 
st yle keyboard , 16 color hi g h resolution gra phics , 9 octave music 
s ynthesizer and 3-dimensional sprites . 

And the same commitment we make to hardware, we're making 
to software. We have highly rated Logo and PILOT programs. 
Much of the well recognized MECC™ courseware and the Edufun™ 
Series from Mi I liken will soon be available. There are hundreds of other 
programs, including a wealth of public domain software for the 
Commodore 64. Our newest additions are 30 early learning programs 
from Midwest Software. 

So you see, the all purpose Commodore 64 really is in a class 
by itself. 

For further information on the Commodore 64 and our 250 
Educational Resource Centers, contact your nearest Commodore 
Education Dealer. 




Ct commodore 

v COMPUTERS 

Commodore Business Machines Inc., P.O. Box 500M, Conshohocken, PA 19428 Canada— 3370 Pharmacy Avenue, Agincourt, Ont. Can. M1W2K4. 
Edufun and MECC are trademarks of Milliken Publishing Company and Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium respectively. 






commodore 



■mmimiiiiifi 



features 



Volume % Number 4, 
Issue 31 

Si-picmlier/Oaober 1984 



38 The Quest for Enhanced Productivity: 
Commodore Meets the Challenge 

by Paul Goheen,Tom Zieeler and Lynn Kaclielries 



42 Easy Script is Easy 

by Bonnie Paris 



46 Four Word Processors for the 
Commodore 64 



by William L. Simon, Ph.D. 



50 Databases 

by Jim Strasma 



58 Spreadsheets: Number Processing with 
Multiplan and Practical* 

by Betsy Byrne and Richard Kotomori, M.I). 

64 Productivity Software for Commodore 
Computers: A Complete List 



using your computer 

20 Business 

Commodore in Community Service 

by WJ. Crowley 

23 Education 

Kids Learn with Frenzy /Flip Flop, Gulp and 

Arrow Graphics 
by Doreen George Carlson 

25 Travel 

The Globetrotting Computer 
by Matthew Kiell 



understanding your computer 

34 Programmer's Tips 

Random Thoughts, Part 7: Fun and Games 

by Mark Zimmerman/i 
Cassette Files for PET/CBM 

byRoben Nicholas 
Two High-Res Screen Dumps for the 64 

bv Steve Beats and [uhn McKean 



Programmer's Tips 

Kaleidoscope for the PET and Commodore 64 

by jerry A. Sturdivant 

87 Technical Tips 

Prime Numbers 

by Craig R. Hessel 
Adding a Hex Keypad to Your PET/CBM 

by Ronald E. Randolph 

Inverse Trigonometric Functions 
by Jim Butierfield 

96 64 Users Only 

Screen Box Data Display Routines 

by Peter L. Knox 

Memory Loader/Saver for the Commodore 64 

by Bruce Jaeger 
Appending Machine Code Routines to Your 
BASIC Programs for the 64 

by Rogers. Macombef 

106 PET/CBM Users Only 



Line Formatting 
by Joe Koiello 



110 SuperPET Users Only 

SuperPET Potpourri 



bv Dick Barno 



reviews 



116 Hardware 



1 lesModem I 

reviewed bv Brock N, Meeks 



118 Software 



Database Manager 
rev lewed by Ted Salamone 

Tool 64 

reviewed by Elizabeth Deal 

Write Now! 

reviewed bv Kellev M. Evsoe 



departments 



6 Letters 



8 Editor's Notes 



10 Industry News 



124 User Groups 



128 That Does Not Compute 



128 Advertisers' Index 




departments shafr 



Editor 

Diane LeBok) 

Technical Editor 

Jlra Gracely 

Assistant Editor 
Carol Minion 

StaffWriters 
Sieve Beats 

Doreen George Carlson 
Paul Goheen 
Larry Greenley 
Lynn Kachelries 
Tom Ziegler 

Contributing Writers 

Dick Barnes, Jim Butterfleld, Betsy Byrne, 
WJ. Crowley. Elizabeth Deal. Kelley M. 
Essoe. Craig R. liessel. Bruce Jaeger, 

Matthew Kiell. Peter I.. Knox, Richard 
Kotomori, Rogers. Macomber.john 
McKean, Brock N. Meeks, Bonnie Paris, 
Ronald E. Randolph. Joe Rotello, Ted 
Salamone, William I,. Simon, Jim Strasma, 
Jerry A. Sturdivant. Mark Zimmermann 

Technical Staff 
Tony Caramanico 

Barbara Karpinski 

Circulation Manager 

John O'Brien 

Circulation Assistant 

Kathy Reigel 

Advertising Sales Manager 

Pamela S. Fedor 

Advertising Coordinator 

Sharon Steinhofer 

Graphic Design 

Neumann. Greenberg, Schlenker 
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 

Cover 
Bob Emmou 

Typography 

Associates International. Inc. 
Wilmington. Delaware 

Printing 

Volkmuth Printers 
St. Cloud, Minnesota 



ISBN 0-88-3-010-9 

ABC Membership Applied For 



Watch for These Upcoming Issues 



Power/Play, Issue 11 (October/November): Kids using Commodore 
computers — you know they're out there, but do you reallv know 
what they're up to? In this issue we locus on the best of the Commo- 
dore Kids, whether they're running kids' computer groups, writing 
programs, publishing articles or winning science fairs. And, as a spe- 
cial added attraction, you'll love our exclusive interview with kids- 
and-computers expert Fred Dlgnazio! 

Commodore Microcomputers, Issue 32 (November/December): 
MUSIC! Need we say more? Get an indepth look at the wonders of 
the Commodore 64's Sound Interface Device (SID) — who's using it 
to do what, and how you can use it to get the most out of the 64's very 
special synthesizer. Featuring detailed coverage of electronic com- 
poser Ryo Kawasaki and the music he's making with his 64. 



Key to Entering Program Listings 

n [Fl,F2,F3,F4,F5,F6,F7,F8]":Fl,F2,F3,F4, 

F5,F6, F7 AND F8 
" [POUND] ": ENGLISH POUND 
" I PI] "PI SYMBOL 
"~":UP ARROW 

" [HOME] " :UNSHIFTED CLR/HOME 
" [CLEAR] ": SHIFTED CLR/HOME 
" [RVS] " : REVERSE ON 
" [RVOFF] ": REVERSE OFF 
" [BLACK, WHITE, RED, CYAN, MAGENTA, GREEN, BLUE, 

YELLOW] " THE 8 CTRL KEY COLORS 
" [ORANGE, BROWN, L. RED, GRAY 1,GRAY 2,L. 

GREEN, L. BLUE, GRAY 3]": THE 8 

COMMODORE KEY COLORS (ONLY ON THE 64) 
GRAPHIC SYMBOLS WILL BE REPRESENTED AS 

EITHER THE LETTERS SHFT (SHIFT KEY) AND 

A KEY:" [SHFT Q,SHFT K,SHFT V,SHFT T, 

SHFT L] " 

OR THE LETTERS CMDR 

A KEY: "[CMDR Q,CMDR 

CMDR 0] " 
IF A SYMBOL IS REPEATED, THE NUMBER OF 

REPITITIONS WILL BE DIRECTLY AFTER THE 

KEY AND BEFORE THE COMMA :" [SPACE3 , 

SHFT S4,CMDR M2) " 



(COMMODORE KEY) AND 
H,CMDR S,CMDR N, 



VIC 20™, Commodore 64™ and SuperPKT™ are trademarks of Commodore 
Electronics Ltd. PET* is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines, 
Inc. CBM ,R is a registered trademark ol Commodore Electronics Ltd. 

Commodore Microcomputers is published six limes a year by Commodore Busi- 
ness Machines, Inc., 1200 Wilson Drive, West Chester. Pennsylvania 19380. Copyright 
1984 c by Commodore Electronics Ltd. All rights reserved. No material may be re- 
printed without permission in writing. Volume 5. Number 4, Issue 31, September/ 
October 1984. 

US. subscriber rate is 515.00 a year. Canadian subscriber rate is 520.00 a year. Over- 
seas $25.00 a year. Direct subscription orders or questions to Commodore Magazine 
Subscription Department, Box 651, Holmes, PA 190+3. phone 800-345-8112 ( in Penn- 
sylvania 800-662-2444). 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct, 1984 



Simulator n 



X 



fy 




ft'Ss 



*fi8S5 




. , ou rse If in the pi lot's seat of a Piper 181 Cherokee Archer for an a we- i nspiring flight over real istic scene 
from New York to Los Angeles. High speed color-filled 3D graphics will give you a beautiful panoramic vie 1 
as you practice takeoff s, landings, and aerobatics. Complete documentation will get you airborne quickly f 
even if you've never flown before. When you think you're ready, you can play the World War I Ace aerial battle; 
game. Flight Simulator II features include ■ animated color 3D graphics ■ day, dusk, and night flying modes 
■ over 80 airports in four scenery areas: New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, with additional scenery 
areas available ■ user-variable weather, from clear blue skies to grey cloudy conditions ■ complete flight 
instrumentation ■ VOR, ILS, ADR and DUE radio equipped ■ navigation facilities and course plotting ■ World I 
War I Ace aerial battle game ■ complete information manual and flight handbook. 



See your dealer . . . 

or write or call tor more information. For direct orders please add $1 .50 tor 
shipping and specify UPS or first class mail delivery. American Express, Diner's 
Club, MasterCard, and Visa accepted. 

Order Line: 800/637-4983 



(*L0GIC 

Corporation 
713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign IL 61820 

(217) 359-8482 Teiex: 206995 



departments lelters 



Public-Key 
Cryptography Update 

To the Editor: 

This is an update on "Public-Key 
Cryptography. . ." (Issue 26). Read- 
ers who have had trouble adapting 
the drive program to newer model 
Commodore computers ( includ- 
ing the VIC and 64) and who have 
been getting unwanted TAPE REM) 
ERROR messages should try the 
fo 1 1 o w i ng changes : 

255... GOTO 367 

290... THEN 367 

36" BS = CRS:GOSUB 530 
This inserts a dummy carriage re- 



turn at the end of every file and al- 
lows a later cassette read of the file 
to work properly. The program 
can be modified to work without 
changing the file format, but it's a 
little messier. 

The problem stems from a 
change in the way the operating 
system handles the status variable. 
Nowadays, ST is set to 64 when 
GET# fetches the last character of 
a file. On the original PET, ST was 
not set to 64 until GET# tried to 
read character past the end of 
the file. 

Readers might also check out 
the Science section of the Febru- 



New dimensions in Bible study. 




Requires APPLE 

and compatibles, TRS80, 

CP/M 2.2 (Z-80), KAYPRO, 

OSBORNE, COMMODORE 64, 

Z-100. 



IE WORD 
processor 

e KJV Bible on 

199.95* 
OPICS 

) Scripture 

$49.95 * 

istage/liandling 



Lesearcn 

9415 Burnet, Suite 208 

Austin, TX 78758 

(512) 835-7981 

'Software for personal Bible study." 




Circle Reader Service No. 2 



ary 13, 1984, issue of Time maga- 
zine (page 47). It reports that 
mathematicians using a CRAY 
computer and a new algorithm 
have recently succeeded in factor- 
ing a 69-digk number (2f 251-1). 
While advances in technology 
and discoveries of better ways to 
factor may seem to threaten the 
security of the RSA cryptosystem, 
the system does have a builtin 
safeguard. If necessary, it is rela- 
tively easy to use larger numbers 
as keys. The cost of this is longer 
encoding/decoding times, which 
increase roughly as the cube of the 
keylength. The gain is in increased 
difficulty of factoring (breaking) 
the keys, which grows worse in an 
exponential-like function of the 
key length. This is a cost/benefit 
battle that the RSA system is des- 
tined to win. 

Craig R. Hesse I 
Green Bay, Wisconsin 

VIC 20s Interfaced 
with Million Dollar 
Hospital System 

To the Editor: 

1 am enclosing some pictures 
that we took at Emory University 
Hospital's cardiac cath lab. The 
computer system we are using to 
analyze the x-ray system's opera- 
tion is a Commodore VIC 20. 

With all the computers on the 
market today that we could have 
used, we found the VIC system to 
be most useful. Some engineers 
are a little surprised at what we 
have interfaced with a million dol- 
lar piece of equipment, but 1 be- 
lieve the Commodore computers 
are worth their weight in gold. 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



1 would also like to say we have 
had great support from the local 
Commodore store, A&S Software, 
in Atlanta, 

I n the future we plan to inter- 
face more Commodore computers 
with our cath labs. And we are 
looking forward to seeing the new 
products in the future. 

William C. Latimer 
President, Ixttco, Inc. 
Kenuesaw, Georgia 

Copying Magazine 
Program Listings 

To the Editor: 

As president of the Canton, 
Akron. Massillon ( C/A/M > area 
users group in Ohio, 1 would 
like clarification regarding the 
typing and copying of programs 
in your magazine. 

Most of our members subscribe 
to or purchase your magazine 
each month. We all recognize 
the publication as a fine piece of 
computer journalism and receive 
valuable information from 
each issue. 

At our last meeting we discov- 
ered that the same program was 
being typed by several members. 
Therein lies our problem. We 
would like to have members vol- 
unteer to type all of the printed 
monthly programs on a rotational 
basis and save them to disk. At 
the following meeting we would 




A VIC 20 analyzes the x-ray system's 
operation at Emory University Hospital 
in Georgia. 



copy all of the programs to each 
member's personal disk without 
charge. In this way. all members 
will have the opportunity to 
type from their magazine issue 
and contribute equally to the 
users group. 

I lelt it necessarv to ask vour 
permission to make copies for 
members of the users group. Al- 
though no charge will be made, 
we recognize that your magazine 
is copyrighted so we do not want 
to infringe upon your rights in 
this application. 

Loren S. Hines 
President, CAM Area 

l 'ser's Group 
North Canton, Ohio 



i*3*Wr 






<*-&; 



rn^f- 



:=5p5*iiS5? is2e*fe_ ^^.. 






1 cfyT 



' r$ 




Kay Taylor 



Mother what do von mean von can't go to the Diaries with us 

because your new modem microchip has just bypassed the 
Telex mainframe and you're online with the White House! 



We're been asked this question 
quite a lot lately, so we /bought 
it was time to publish an official 
answer. Since the entire contents 
of both our magazines is copy- 
righted, you may not legally copy 
any part — neither text nor pro- 
gram listings —for distribution, 
free or otherwise. HOWEVER, there 
is one exception —and here's where 
some of you get to heave a sigh of 
relief If you type a program from 
one of our magazines onto disk 
or tape, you MAI legally distribute 
copies of that program to people 
who own a copy of the particular 
issue in which that program ap- 
peared. But only to those people. 
Such is copyright law. 



Using your 

COMMODORE 64 

in an 

INTERESTING or UNUSUAL 

way? 

We'd like to know about it! 

Send us a note describing 

your interesting or unusual 

application 

TODAY 

for possible publication. 

{Include photos if you can.) 

Send material to: 

Diane LeBold, Editor 

Commodore User Publications 

1200 Wilson Drive 

West Chester, PA 19380 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



departments Editor's notes 



Commodore Shines at CES 



New Computer Announced 

By the time you read this thejune Consumer 
Electronics Show (CES) in Chicago will be long over 
and the national and local newspeople will have 
moved on to oilier stories. We who produce com- 
puter magazines, however, will he talking about 
CES, directly or indirectly, tor months to come. For 
instance, many of the products we'll be reviewing 
from now until the next CES in January (and proba- 
bly even after that ) are those that were shown for 
the first time at that June show. 

Commodore products — both hardware and 
software — were, as usual, among the big hits of the 
show. Most notable among the Commodore prod- 
ucts is an entry-level version of the Plus/4 series 
computers (originally called the 264 series). Called 
the Commodore 16, the new computer looks a lot 
like a Commodore 64 from the outside, but the 
internal workin's are a shaved down Plus/4, with 3.5 
extended BASIC, buikin machine language monitor, 
16 colors with eight luminence levels, 40-column 
screen with 320 X 200-pixel resolution, compatibil- 
ity with the 1541 disk drive and 1531 datassette, and 
upward software compatibility with the Plus/4 — all 
for what promises to be a ridiculously low price. 

Although the exteriors of the Plus/4 and the 
Commodore 16 are different, the only significant 
difference between their interiors is the amount of 
RAM — the 16 has 16K and the Plus/4 has 64K— and 
the fact that the Plus/4 has builtin software. Look for 
an indepth review of the Commodore 16 in an up- 
coming issue. Il should be a hot item in the second 
half of 19K-T. 

Commodore also showed their new Videotex 64 
telecommunications package, which allows you to 
combine high-resolution graphics with text and 
transmit the whole thing via modem using the 
Commodore 64. The new package uses NAPLYPS 
protocols — the latest in telecommunications 
technology — and is simple to use, with just a few 
menu screens and online help. You can be sure 
we'll be covering this advanced product in depth in 
an upcoming issue as well. 



In addition, Commodore announced a new coin- 
tract with Adventure Internationa! to produce and 
distribute six adventure games featuring Marvel 
Comics characters, including the Hulk™ and 
Spiderman™. The new series, to be produced for 
the Commodore 64 and PI us/4 computers, is called 
Questprobe. To make things even more interesting 
for all our comic book fans. Marvel will also be pub- 
lishing comic books that coordinate with the games. 

Of course, as time goes on we'll be continually 
writing about the many other Commodore-related 
products from both Commodore and independent 
manufacturers that were announced in June. After 
all, that's our job. So stay tuned. We've got a lot of in- 
formation just waiting to get into prim. 

Finally, you may have noticed the absence of Neil 
Harris' name in our masthead. After over a year and 
a half as our director of publishing, Neil is now 
serving Commodore in our software division. 
Neil was instrumental in helping upgrade our maga- 
zine's overall quality and in helping engineer 
the department's growth. Those of you who enjoy 
his writing, however, will be glad to know 
he's promised to contribute regularly to both 
our magazines. 

We think you'll like our feature section this 
month, showcasing productivity software for Com- 
modore computers. Especially helpful, I think, is the 
chart listing just about every piece of productivity 
software for our computers presently known to be 
in existence. Our thanks to The International 
Software Database Corporation in Fort Collins, Col- 
orado, for supplying that list. 

- Diane LeBokl 
Editor 




Diane Leliohi 



8 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct 1984 



«*&&? 



6 u 



*/W^ c 



pe' 



sK- 




First 



industry news 



Explosive Software Growth 

Predicted 



The U.S. microcomputer 
software market is expected to 
grow from $1.85 billion in 1983 
to approximately $12 billion 
(1983 dollars) in 1990, says a 
new 100-page report by 
FIND/SVP, a New York-based 
information and research firm. 
The key to this explosive 
growth is evolving distribution 
strategies in business, edu- 
cation and home markets. 
The report. Microcomputer 
Software Distribution, fore- 
casts a shakeout in the general 
application business and 
home markets, while software 
publishers and distributors 
who do not gain a share in 
these markets will compete for 
the smaller special applica- 
tions market. 

"The next two years will see 
a continuation of the rapid ev- 
olution of the microcomputer 
industry," says Peter Allen, 
FIND/SVP manager of market 
reports. "The manner in which 
microcomputer software 
is distributed will be one area 
in which the changes will be 
most conspicuous ,! 

The FIND/SVP report fo- 
cuses specifically on evolving 
distribution patterns and strat- 
egies from microcomputer 
software. It defines "micro- 
computer" as a complete 
system with a top retail price 
of $10,000 and separates 
software to operate such sys- 
tems into two groups: general 
business applications, such 
as word processing or spread 
sheets, and industry specific 
programs made for applica- 
tions unique to a certain verti- 
cal market. 

The two predominant chan- 
nels of distribution for software 
are retail outlets and direct re- 
sponse. Between them, they 
account for some 78% of all 
microcomputer software dis- 



tributed in 1983. However, the 
study projects a decline in the 
importance of these two chan- 
nels due to: changing user 
sophistication and numbers, 
enhanced technology, a 
shakeout in the personal com- 
puter hardware industry and 
advanced marketing pro- 
grams. These factors will 
create a new environment for 
distribution of microcomputer 
software in the second half of 
the 1980s. 

The years 1982-1983 saw a 
critical change in the micro- 
computer industry. During 
that period, the installed base 
of personal computers rose 
dramatically. Suddenly there 
were thousands of new users. 
This surge in use generated 
two distinct user groups: those 
who used computers before 
the surge and are now the 
leading-edge buyers and 
those who are new to comput- 
ers and who require foolproof 
or user-friendly programs. 

For software publishers, 
these emerging groups repre- 
sent different strategic chal- 
lenges in the formulation of 
distribution patterns. The 
leading-edge users have, in 
many cases, become the key 
microcomputer decision mak- 
ers in their organizations. As 
such, they influence large pur- 
chase decisions. This group's 
sophistication often requires 
enhanced software and in- 
depth sales techniques. To win 
over reluctant new users, pub- 
lishers must also provide 
onscreen help tools, elemen- 
tary documentation and tuto- 
rial materials. 

At the same time, changes 
in distribution patterns for 
microcomputer software will 
result from technical innova- 
tion. Among the major devel- 
opments that publishers will 



need to consider are the im- 
plementation of integrated 
software and operation envi- 
ronments as a standard part of 
microcomputers; the maturing 
of electronic distribution as a 
viable distribution channel; 
automated disk production; 
and mainframe/microcomputer 
interaction and networking as 
regular aspects of the auto- 
mated office. 

The advent of professional 
marketers in the software in- 
dustry will have a major impact 
on software distribution chan- 
nels. Large increases in ad- 
vertising budgets and a 
heightened search for the 
perfect image will put enor- 
mous financial pressure on 
software publishers. In- 
creased advertising will also 
fundamentally alter the means 
of competing for both software 
and hardware producers. 

Franchise stores, both 
computer and software-only 
varieties, should prove to be 
the premier channel for the 
remainder of the decade. 
Software-only stores will use 
volume purchasing to offer the 
best prices and widest choice, 
while computer stores will 
capitalize on their ability to sell 
software as part of a package 
to first-time users. Indepen- 
dent retail stores will need to 
stress support training, overall 
personal attention to customer 
needs and their special 
knowledge of industry-spe- 
cific requirements. 

Other retail outlets will con- 
tinue to distribute software, 
though their impact on the 
market may decline. Office 
equipment dealers will prove 
only marginally useful in 
software distribution, as they 
are not well positioned to offer 
a broad choice or competitive 
pricing. Both fullprice and 



offprice mass merchandisers 
will continue to offer software, 
but in a limited fashion de- 
signed to sell customers who 
are in the stores for other rea- 
sons. Discount electronic 
stores will also generate only 
marginal sales, as they dis- 
cover the difficulty of matching 
software-oniy store pricing 
structures. 

FIND/SVP's study goes on to 
pinpoint the key issues to con- 
sider for competition in the 
microcomputer software mar- 
ket. The more successful 
competitors will be the ones 
who can establish brand iden- 
tity beyond any single product 
they may offer; who can de- 
velop the financial arrange- 
ments, customer relations and 
cooperative advertising func- 
tions critical to product sup- 
port and training programs; 
and who can accommodate 
the profit margin squeeze 
brought on by declining 
software prices and consumer 
comparison shopping. 

A few leading software pub- 
lishing companies will come to 
dominate the genera! appli- 
cations markets. Smalt pub- 
lishers will concentrate on 
vertical markets. To access 
such markets, these publishers 
will turn to cooperative ventures 
with other types of companies, 
for example, value-added re- 
marketers or computer service 
companies. The growing 
sophistication of the user base 
will require all publishers to 
strengthen brand image. 

The FIND/SVP report was 
published in March of 1984 
and is available from Informa- 
tion Products Division and can 
be ordered from FIND/SVP, 
500 Fifth Avenue, New York, 
NY 10110. The telephone 
number is 212-354-2424. 



10 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept /Oct. 1964 




I. 



Handle —A Complete Line 

of Products to Keep Your 

Commodore 64 Busy 

-Everyday! 

Develop your bridge 
skills 



ti«ati(it>>>'" 




Handle your home 
budget, stock portfolio, 
loans and mortgages 
with Calc Result 

Calc Result Easy is a simple-to-use spread- 
sheet program for the Commodore 64. It 
includes 254 lines x 64 columns, built-in 
graphics, and flexible printout formats. 
Plug-in cartridge... just plug it in and its 
ready. Perfect for cash flow analysis, perso- 
nal net worth, IRA analysis, travel expenses, 
credit card expenditures, gas and elec- 
tricity bills, etc. 



A complete database 
for the home 

Addresses, telephone numbers, appoint- 
ments, birthdays, or records-whatever you 
want to remember-put it on DIARY, an 
electronic notebook for home use, DIARY 
comes on a plug-in cartridge. Its easy to 
use and easy to learn, giving you the 
flexibility to design a personal calendar 
or address book. 




Calc Result Easy $49.95 

Calc Result Advanced gives you 32 pages of 
interrelated information. The three-dimen- 
sional feature allows you to consolidate 
calculations in summary format. Calc Re- 
sult Advanced comes on plug-in cartridge 
and disk. Disk drive required. 



w i ■■ ' i i mti lm 



Diary $29.95 
Turn statistical 
information into 
graphic format 

GRAF 64 converts mathematical functions 
into graphical analysis on the Commodore 
64. An ideal program for studying math. 
Define a function, set the limits of an axis, 
plot a graph and display the extreme 
points, intersection values, etc. 



JtotSE s 



58HMg 



ISO 1SB 

215 SSB 

15 e 



-*5 SB 

28 6 Ses 



Calc Result Advanced $99.95 



r- 


HH^ptW 1Y-TI5 HMO r-«IHIl»l 


! 




^">>S 1J» 


^ 






M.B1 \^ 








-4&.S1 \ 








-?«.*» 






k- 


-lit 


■< 





Graf 64 $29.95 



Whether you're an experienced bridge 
player or a beginner, polish your skills or 
learn the game with BRIDGE 64. Play 
North- South, then switch to East-West in 
the same deal, the return to that deal again 
and test your skill with a different strategy. 




Bridge $39.95 
Handle— for the 
broadest range of 
Commodore products 

As the largest independent developer of 
Commodore software and accessories, 
Handle's broad range of business, educa- 
tion and recreation products are designed 
exclusively for the Commodore user who 
demands quality and reliability. 



Sofia*"*. 



g, H«r<iw""* 



"** -„« Co^"^ , " t "" , 



^Catalog"* 



h gs^. c . 



For more information and a catalogue of 
our products, see your nearest Commo- 
dore dealer, or call us direct. 




Handic Software, Inc. 

Fellowship Business Center 
520 Fellowship Road, B 206 
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054 
Phone (609)663-0660 



Circle Reader Service No. 4 



Low Priced Battery 
Backup System 



Afraid of power failure? A 
blackout or a power surge can 
wipe out your program and 
hours of your work. Creative 
Electronics of Thousand Oaks, 
California, has an answer with 
a low priced battery backup 
system. The unit plugs in be- 
tween your computer and 
power supply. It recharges 
continually and when power 
fails, it automatically activates 
and supplies about one to 
three hours of reserve power. It 
also supplies power to the 



cassette for saving your pro- 
grams or data. 

It is very easy to install and 
its compact size permits either 
desktop use or out-of-the-way 
use. The battery backup does 
not put a strain on your com- 
puter's power supply and it 
shuts off automatically when 
you power down. The unit has 
a large 12-volt 5-amp per hour 
battery. Its being charged by 
standby trickie charge allows 
longer battery life. 
Circle Reader Service No. 500 



NeW for°the 64 



Datamost, Inc.. a publisher 
of software and computer- 
related books based in 
Chatsworth, California, an- 
nounced the release of six new 
Commodore 64 book titles. 

Commodore 64 Game Con- 
struction Tool Kit teaches how 
to write BASIC games. The 
book gives examples of differ- 
ent games and teaches funda- 
mental lessons of quality game 
programming. Game tools, 
techniques, graphics, sound 
and sprites are al! discussed. 

Commodore 64 LOGO 
Workbook introduces the 
LOGO programming lan- 
guage to children in grades 
two through six. Lessons are 
structured in a workbook for- 
mat and include what a turtle 
is, how to use visual problem 
solving, variables, geometry 
and recursion. Written so chil- 
dren can easily understand, 
the Workbook teaches LOGO 
in a simple format. 

Guide to Commodore 64 
Software and Hardware is the 
first detailed listing of products 
available for the popular 
Commodore 64. Each product 
is listed by category, accom- 
panied by a brief description, 
manufacturer information, 
price, medium and any special 
system requirements. Over 
1500 products, representing 



300 companies, are listed. 

Inside Commodore DOS is 
for any programmer who 
wants to know more about the 
Commodore 1541's DOS, 
complementing the Commo- 
dore 1541 user's manual. The 
book includes complete in- 
formation on formatting, stor- 
age, backing up protected 
disks and recovering dam- 
aged data. 

The Super Computer 
Snooper shows how the 64 
"thinks". The book investi- 
gates memory, screen, pro- 
grams, variables, keyboards, 
printers and peripherals. You'll 
trace the path of a character 
from the first keystroke to the 
finai printout, restore erased 
files, identify hidden files and 
write a program which rewrites 
itself. For the BASIC pro- 
grammer who wants to pre- 
pare for machine language. 

Wiz Explores Your Commo- 
dore 64 is an interactive pic- 
ture book, activity workbook 
and disk that teaches young 
children how a computer 
works. Wiz takes the child on a 
guided tour of the Commodore 
64, explaining terms like CPU. 
RAM, ROM and bytes in sim- 
ple terms. The activity disk is 
tailored so children can pro- 
gress at their own speed. 
Circle Reader Service No. 501 



Talking Computer 

Aids 

Blind Students 



Talking computers were 
once the staple of bad science 
fiction films, but a professor at 
Hobart and William Smith Col- 
leges in Geneva, New York, 
has found a practical use for a 
computer terminal that says 
what's on its screen. 

"It's useful for students who 
have a vision impairment or 
are blind," says Irving O. 
Bentsen, professor of math- 
ematics, who obtained the 
talking terminal for use in the 
colleges' mathematics and 
computer sciences depart- 
ment two years ago. Bentsen 
himself is blind. 

Unlike its fictional counter- 
parts, Bentsen's terminal 
doesn't hear and does not 
carry on conversations in the 
typical sense. The instrument, 
known as "Total Talk," is a 
Hewlett-Packard terminal, 
linked to a PDP 11/44 
minicomputer located in 
another campus building. 
Maryland Computer Services 
installed the voice processor 
in a module beneath the 
monitor screen. 

The voice unit has controls 
for volume, pitch, tone and 
speed and a jack for head- 
phone use. Pitch varies as the 
machine speaks a sentence 
and indicates punctuation by 
dropping on the last word of a 
statement or rising on the last 
word of a question. 

"A person not used to lis- 
tening to the terminal's speech 
may find it difficult to under- 
stand at first," Bentsen says. 
"It can be difficult under- 
standing complicated math- 
ematical expressions, but 
usually I find the speech easy 
to follow." 

The voice reads the words 
on the terminal's screen as 
they are followed by the cur- 
sor. It can be adjusted to read 
continuously or to stop at each 
line, word or — when the voice 
cannot handle the nuances of 
a word such as a "rendez- 
vous" — to spell each word 



letter by letter, 

"One remarkable thing 
about the machine," Bentsen 
says, "is that it has an unlim- 
ited vocabulary. For example, 
it puts phonemes (speech 
sounds) together according to 
a set of about 400 rules of pro- 
nunciation. Where these rutes 
fail to yield an accurate pro- 
nunciation of a specific word, 
the user can program in the 
correct pronunciation. 

The professor uses his talk- 
ing terminal in much the same 
way a sighted person would 
utilize a computer. He keeps 
his departmental files, grading 
schedule and mathematics 
notes in the system and uses it 
to investigate mathematical 
theories when computations 
would take too much time if 
done by hand. 

By using a printer, Bentsen 
can produce letters or written 
assignments for his students. 

There are a few disadvan- 
tages, he says. "Although the 
terminal can utilize a consid- 
erable portion of the host 
computer's editing capabil- 
ities, some more sophisticated 
editing features available on 
other terminals compatible 
with the PDP 11/44 are 
not available." 

Also, the voice unit slows 
the machine. 

"When you use it with the 
voice, information is fed into a 
buffer, then transmitted 
through the speech syn- 
thesizer," he explains. "The 
signal comes through slower 
than the 2,400 baud (bits per 
second) speed of which the 
machine is normally capable," 

Another drawback of the 
customized terminal is its 
price. A typical computer can 
cost about $1000, but the unit 
needed by Bentsen and other 
visually impaired users costs 
£5,000. It was purchased with 
funds designated to assist the 
handicapped at Hobart and 
William Smith. 



12 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



W A 






^^^^H HH9 



A 







v 



■■ 










9 



WlTl-l NIGHTMISSION 






You deserve the best. You've earned it. Now reward yourself with a session of Night Mission PIN BALL, 
the most realistic and challenging arcade simulation ever conceived! ■ Stunning graphics and dazzling 
f ~~ " ■^--"" > \ sour, d erfect8 P ut Night Mission PIN BALL in a class by itself. Game features: multi- 

\ [j£i/:7 ' | ball andmulti-playercapabilities.tendifferentprofessionallydesignedlevelsof play, 
•■ — i . and an editor that lets you create your own custom modes. ■ So take a break with 
Night Mission PINBALL from SubLOGIC. Winner of Electronic Games magazine's 
1983 Arcade Award for Best Computer Audio/Visual Effects. 



i 



w 

■H 



See your dealer 



*LOGIC 



H 



713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign IL 61820 USA 

(217) 359-8482 Telex: 206995 



Circle Reader Service No. 5 



New Million-Bit RAM Chip 



An experimental computer 
memory chip that can store 
more than one million bits of 
information has been fabri- 
cated on an existing man- 
ufacturing line. 

The experimental chip, 
called a one megabit dynamic 
random access memory 
(DRAM), was fabricated on the 
same manufacturing line the 
company has used since 1978 
for mass production of other 
high-density memory chips, 
including those that store 
64,000 and 72,000 bits of data. 

Use of these existing man- 
ufacturing facilities has both 
demonstrated the chip's 
manufacturability and accel- 
erated its development for 
potential use. 

Engineers have demon- 
strated that the fabrication 
process has already been de- 
veloped far enough to pro- 
duce perfect chips. Individual 
chips have been made in 
which every one of the 
1,048,576 memory cells is free 
of defects and in which it is 
possible to write data into and 
read data out of each cell. 

The megabit chip, devel- 
oped at IBM's laboratory in 
Essex Junction, Vermont, was 
made using an extension of 
IBM's Silicon and Aluminum 
Metal Oxide Semiconductor 
(SAMOS) processing technol- 





i niit 


in 


mi 
[in 


i ; us 
; in 


in 
in 



I* ,' 1 1) B [J 



U li u u 



i.t 1.1.1 !■•>-"■->•'-'- :;V-*r.^',-, 1 Vr?'.' : i i -*''T 



p 







I!! 



I; , 



id" k * * 

in 
in 



iliM-» 



JIL 



IBM's one megabit DRAM chip can store the equivalent ol one 
hundred pages of text. 



ogy, which the company has 
been using since 1978, 

The chip operates with a 
single voltage, five-volt power 
supply. The one million-plus 
memory cells and their sup- 
port circuitry occupy an 80.85 
square millimeter area of sili- 
con. The chip dimensions are 
10.5 mm by 7.7 mm (about % 
inch by 5 /is inch). The time 
needed to read data out of the 
chip is 150 nanoseconds (bil- 
lionths of a second). 

A million-bit chip has the 
capacity to store approxi- 
mately one hundred pages of 
double spaced typewritten 
text. A paperback novel of 
about 250 pages could be 
stored in just six of these chips. 

A number of improvements 



in photolithography and pro- 
cessing technology contrib- 
uted to the development of the 
one megabit chip. For ex- 
ample, enhancements to con- 
ventional optical lithography 
■ and photoresist formulation 
made it possible to fabricate 
circuit elements on the chip 
as narrow as one micrometer 
— about 1/50 the width of a 
human hair. 

Extending the capability of 
photolithography is of funda- 
mental importance since, in 
general, halving the width of 
the lines of a circuit pattern 
makes it possible to fabricate 
the same pattern in only one 
quarter the area. 

The high storage density 
(13,025 bits per square milli- 



meter) of the new chip is also 
derived in part from the use of 
advanced processing technol- 
ogy. A new processing step 
that electrically insulates 
adjacent storage nodes from 
one another allows them to be 
placed less than one micro- 
meter apart without creating 
unwanted electrical effects 
that would tend to impair chip 
performance. 

Another processing devel- 
opment that directly contrib- 
utes to the density of the one 
megabit chip is the use of an 
extremely thin layer of a com- 
posite dielectric material to 
cover the storage nodes. This 
layer is only 15 nanometers 
thick or about 50 to 60 
atoms high. 

Reducing the thickness of 
this layer makes it possible to 
increase the amount of electri- 
cal charge that can be stored 
without increasing the area of 
the node which takes up a siz- 
able fraction of the memory cell 
itself. In this way, a strong and 
easily sensed signal can be 
obtained from the cell without 
the need to enlarge its area. 

The chip is packaged on a 
22-pin ceramic substrate 12 
millimeters square (about Vs 
inch on a side) using IBM's 
flip-chip bonding technology. 
This makes possible a pack- 
aging density of four mega- 
bits per square inch. 



National Street Map on Computer 



While the scenario of putting 
a map of the entire United 
States into a computer may 
sound a little far-fetched, a 
company from Lyme, New 
Hampshire has encoded into a 
mainframe computer informa- 
tion about every street in the 
United States. 

The company. Geographic 
Data Technology, uses a 
Summagraphics D-Series dig- 
itizer and street maps to 
capture some 300 bits of geo- 
graphic data such as street 
names, address range, lat- 
itude/longitude coordinates 
at each intersection and zip ■ 
code boundaries. 




While Geographic Data 
Technology works to complete 
the task, it breaks off bits of its 
huge database and sells them 
to whomever can use them. 
They have sold latitude/ 
longitude coordinates to a 
cookie manufacturer to help 
them quickly load and route 
their trucks from the factory to 
their retail outlets, census tract 
coordinates to site location 
executives to help them 
choose where to put a new car 
dealership, zip code bound- 
aries to target newspaper 
readership and minor civil di- 
vision boundaries to map acid 
rain measurements. 



14 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Ocl. 1984 




I rTj?*^ V 



■ 










IT'S NOT HOW MUCH YOU PAY. 




IT'S HOW MUCH YOU GET. 



The computer at the top 
has a 64K memory. 

It has the initials I, B, and 
M. And you pay for those 
initials— about $669. 

The Commodore 64™ has 
a 64K memory. 

But you don't pay for the 
initials, you just pay for the 
computer: $215. About one 
third the price of the IBM PCjr™ 

The Commodore 64 
also has a typewriter-type 



keyboard with 66 typewriter- 
type keys. (Not rubber chicklet 
keys like the IBM PCjr.) 

It has high resolution 
graphics with 320 x 200 pixel 
resolution, 16 available colors 
and eight 3-dimensional sprites. 

It has 9-octave high fidelity 
sound. 

The Commodore 64 is 
capable of running thousands 
of programs for home and 
office. And if you add a printer 



or color monitor, disk drive and 
a modem— all together it just 
about equals the price of the 
IBM PCjr all alone. With no 
peripherals. 

So you can buy a computer 
for a lot of money. 

Or buy a lot of computer 
for the money. 

COMMODORE 64^ 

IT'S NOT HOW LITTLE IT COSTS, 
IT'S HOW MUCH YOU GET. 



Award-Winning 
Educational Software 



Sunburst Communications 
Inc. has carried away seven 
awards, the largest number 
received by any publisher, in 
the 1984 Software Search of 
the Council for Exceptional Chil- 
dren (CEC), according to Marge 
Kosel, vice president of the 
educational publisher's micro- 
computer courseware division. 

Fifty-five commercial com- 
panies and 49 individual de- 
velopers submitted entries for 
CEC's first annual software 
search. The purpose of the 
search, according to Joseph- 
ine Barresi, CEC's director of 
special projects, was "to 
establish standards of excel- 
lence for educational com- 
puter software and to increase 
the availability of computer 
programs designed to be effec- 
tive in the education of handi- 
capped and gifted children.' 

There were ten divisions 
within the competition, which 
was organized by CEC's De- 
partment of Professional De- 
velopment with the support of 
the Johns Hopkins University 



and John F. Kennedy Institute. 
Each division within the search 
appointed judges throughout 
the country to test the software 
for technical excellence and ed- 
ucational relevance and merit. 

CEC is a membership organi- 
zation that provides information 
to teachers, administrators 
and legislators concerned 
with the education of the han- 
dicapped and gifted children. 
It maintains a library of profes- 
sional literature in the field of 
special education and coor- 
dinates a political action net- 
work supporting the rights of 
exceptional persons. 

Sunburst, a New York- 
based education publisher 
since 1972, began its micro- 
computer courseware division 
in 1981 and has developed a 
line of over 60 programs for 
most major microcomputers. 
Specializing in the area of 
problem solving, the company 
also develops programs in the 
areas of early elementary, 
mathematics, language arts 
and computer literacy. 



Talking 
Software 

for the 64 



EnTech Software of Studio 
City. California, has introduced 
software that talks in a real 
human voice. It allows the 
Commodore 64 to reproduce 
the intonations, accents and 
character of real speech 

EnTech will be using this 
new speech process to en- 
hance all of its current soft- 
ware. Talking versions of its 
popular Space Math 64 edu- 
cational game, music program 
Studio 64 and business pro- 
gram Management System 



64 were introduced at the 
Summer Consumer Electronics 
Show in Chicago. EnTech will 
also be producing a new line of 
talking educational programs. 
According lo EnTech's 
chairman Ray Soular, "Our in- 
novation makes the computer 
more human. By talking in a 
human voice, the home com- 
puter will be able to teach for- 
eign languages, help with 
spelling, tell stories and do many 
things it couldn't do before.'' 
Circle Reader Service No. 508 



Software 
Publisher 

Offers Kids' 
Programming 

Seminars 



Micro Lab, a midwestern 
software publisher, has 
opened its doors to top com- 
puter students from Chicago's 
public schools, offering ex- 
pertise from Micro Lab's own 
programmers to students with 
the potential to become pro- 
grammers in the industry. 

"Offering such a class," said 
Micro Lab president Stanley 
Goldberg, "is an opportunity 
for us to give back to the com- 
munity what we have earned." 

Goldberg, an advocate of 
computer education, urges 
software industry leaders to 
take responsibility for setting 
computer literacy standards 
and for helping schools to 
meet them. "Children without 
computer training face a future 
as bleak as that of children 
who cannot read or write," 
Goldberg commented. 

The pilot program, the Micro 
Lab founder explained, is in- 
tended as a model for educa- 
tional services other computer 
industry firms might offer. 

At the invitation of Goldberg 



and Micro Lab employees, the 
Chicago Public Schools Bu- 
reau of Computer Education 
selected 15 teen students from 
many applicants attending 
computer education courses 
at Chicago high schools. 

At the Highland Park com- 
pany headquarters, a bus 
carrying students from a 
dozen Chicago neighbor- 
hoods discharges students 
into the care of Micro Lab pro- 
grammer Curt Rostenbach who 
serves as seminar instructor. 

"Each student comes from 
a different computer experi- 
ence," said Rostenbach. 
"Some have extensive famil- 
iarity with large computers 
while others have also tinkered 
with microcomputer programs 
on their own," he said. "But 
before they leave Micro Lab, 
they will know as much as I can 
teach them about assembly 
language. In high school I 
would have given anything to 
have access to the information 
I'm trying to give them," 
Rostenbach explained. 



16 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept /Oct. 1984 




First Computerized Funds 
Transfer Banking System 




Free Software 
Upgrade 



Timeworks' Data Manager 
ownerswhowish to upgrade to 
Timeworks' Data Manager 2 
database program may now 
take advantage of Timeworks" 
new trade-up policy and ex- 
change their Data Manager 
program free of charge for any 
other Timeworks program in 
the same retail price cate- 
gory when they purchase 
Timeworks' Data Manager 2. 

The Data Manager 2 has 
many advanced features in- 
cluding sorting alphabeti- 
cally, numerically or by date, 
along with expanded graphic 
capabilities. A new type of 
data storage system has been 
created to improve and facili- 



tate information storage and 
retrieval. Data Manager 2 will 
fill the needs of both the home 
and small business user. 

It will be the ongoing policy 
of Timeworks to offer this 
type of program to software 
customers whenever an en- 
hanced version of any cur- 
rent Timeworks program is 
announced, 

Timeworks, located at 405 
Lake Cook Rd,. Bldg. A, Deer- 
field, IL 60015, markets a 
broad range of education, 
home management, computer 
education, entertainment and 
business systems for the 
Commodore 64 
Circle Reader Service No. 509 



The Arizona Bank has com- 
pleted installation of the bank- 
ing industry's first microcom- 
puter-based electronic funds 
transfer (EFT) system capable 
of fully automating wire trans- 
fer operations. 

According to Robert M. Fink, 
vice president and project di- 
rector at the Arizona Bank's 
operations center, the newly 
installed WireNet system, de- 
veloped by BankPro Systems 
of San Francisco, employs a 
local area network of IBM Per- 
sonal Computers to process 
the bank's 500 daily incoming 
and outgoing funds transfers. 
Routed via three major wire ser- 
vices, the transfers represent 
a daily volume of $500 million. 

"In automating with the 
WireNet system, we have re- 
placed our manual transfer 
operations, which entailed 
constant telephone and paper 
communications between our 
wire room and our nearly 100 
branch offices," Fink said. "As 
a result, we have created a se- 
cure funds transfer environ- 
ment in which the chance for 
error and the opportunity lor 
malfeasance are vastly re- 
duced. At the same time, we 
have greatly increased em- 
ployee productivity, elimi- 
nating the need for a projected 
50 percent increase in our 
wire room staff over the next 
three years." 

According to Fink, the 
Arizona Bank selected the 
WireNet system largely on 
the basis of its capability to 
interface with the bank's 
IBM mainframe host computer, 
its potential for expansion as 
the number of wire transfers 
increased and its provision 
for a uniform, automated inter- 
face to the major domestic 
wire services — Fedwire, 
Bankwire and Telex/TWX. 
In the near future, the bank 
plans also to interlace the 
system with SWIFT, an inter- 



national wire service. 

"The WireNet system met 
our specifications at less 
than half the cost of a 
minicomputer-based system 
with comparable capabilities," 
said Fink. "Because WireNet is 
modularly designed, it also 
permitted us to buy only the 
capabilities that we currently 
need while providing a means 
for readily expanding our 
funds transfer operations in 
the future." 

The WireNet system pro- 
vides a wide range of features 
for speeding and simplifying 
wire transfers and for ensuring 
their security. Files on each 
funds-transfer customer and 
correspondent bank are 
maintained online for ready 
reference by authorized per- 
sonnel. The system also pro- 
vides operators with a uniform 
screen template which auto- 
matically translates informa- 
tion for each transfer into the 
appropriate wire service for- 
mat. In addition, the system 
maintains detailed security 
profiles on each operator and 
workstation and specifies the 
functions that the operator or 
terminal may perform, as well 
as such limitations as the 
amount of a transaction. 

An entry level WireNet sys- 
tem, including two operator 
workstations with total redun- 
dancy, two data servers, ac- 
cess to one wire service and 
training at BankPro head- 
quarters in San Francisco, is 
priced at $85,000. A four 
workstation system with ac- 
cess to two wire services — a 
configuration that can meet 
the funds transfer needs of 
most institutions — is priced at 
3120,000. 

BankPro Systems was 
founded in February. 1983, to 
design and market sophisti- 
cated, low cost computer sys- 
tems tor corporate applications 
in non-moneycenter banks. C 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 17 



CARTRIDGE-MAKER-**." 

Kow you can nalce your own Coiwiodore 6u Video Gm< and Prograw Cartricgea with 
CAI7RXDG&-KMER-6Q. 

Simple and Easy to use 

a Insert CAftTKIDGF-HAKER-M into the Cormodore 6a cartridge 
expansion port, 

o Tnsert a blank CARTRIDGE-fil to be profiramriec into CARTP.IDGE- 

HAKER-6U. 

o Turn on the Camodore fi« and run the CAP.TR1DGE-MAKE8-6& 

program to create a cartridge of your proaran or video game. 

Ulth CARTSI0CE-HAKEB-6U you can: 



Program reusable Cartridges from disc, cassette, 
other cartridges. 



ory and 



CABTnlDGE-MlSES 
CARTRTDGE-6S f 1S1C1 



3 120.00 
J 59.00 
S 25.00 



Cartridge-Maker Kit I If 9. 00 

tlncludes: Cartr ldge-Kaker-61, Cartridge-Eraser 
and 1 Blank Cartrldge.6a MfiK) 

Purchase of r i blank Cartridge-fin ( 16K eachl 111 



Phone Orders call:Toll Free AOO-?33-3?51 E*t. IP? 1 ) 
PA Residents call 215-363-8BII0 

VISA-HASTERCARD-C.O.D. -CHECK-MONEY ORDER 



CARTRIOGE-KAKER-^a t CABTRIDGE-6* - are tK or Custod Programing Group. Jnc. 
COHH0DO1IE 6» - is a Registered TH of Connodore Business Machines. Inc. 
Healer and Distributor Inquiries Invited 



ORDER FORH - 
10: C.P.O. 

IT Marohwood Road-Suite 2A 

Elton. PA 193U1 
SKIP TO: 

Nane 

Street _ 
City. Slate 



DESCRIPTION 



PBir.E K aUAKTnT • TOTAL 



Cartrldee-flaker Kit 31fl9.O0 
Cartrldge-Haker-64 1J9.00 
Cartridge-Eraser 59.00 

1 Blank Car tridge-6U 25.00 
5 Blank Cartrldge-fili 115.00 



Zip 

( ) 



■■: .. ■..-_ 



TOTAL 

PA Residents only add 6f Sales Tbe 

Shipping »3.00 (If COB add J2.00) 

TOTAL AMOUNT 

iiitr/iiliii jot ptfacv offopyrttht wtffrfta/j. 

Circle Reader Service No. 6 



fi 



|_> 






PET/CBM OWNERS 

High Resolution Graphics ! ! 

^jr- rtrf^ Micro Technology Unlimited has been success- 
wo0 ^ fully marketing I ntegrated Visible Memory pack- 
ages designed for trie 9" and 12" screen 4032 and 8032 
Pel/CBM computers from Commodore for several years. 
The K-1 008-41. 43, and 44 packages mount inside the Pet 
case for maximum protection and portability. To make the 
power and flexibility of the 320 by 200 bit mapped pixel 
graphics display easily accessible, we have designed the 
Keyword Graphics Program. This program adds 45 new 
graphic commands to Commodore BASIC. A number of 
other valuable features are: 4 types of video image control, 
and 5 bank switchable ROM sockets. Additionally, the 
board can be used as an 8K RAM board when graphics are 
not in use. For easy to use, high resolution graphics, write 
or call MTU. 



TO ORDER 

Specify: 

K-1008-4I Package lor 

16/32 Pet, 9" CRT and 2.0 ROMS 

K-1 008-43 Package for 

40/80 Pets, 1 2" CRT and 4.0 ROMS 

K-1008-44 Package lor 

16/32 Pet. 9" CRT and 4.0 ROMS 



Price, $495.00 

Check. Money Order. Bank 

Card, COD Mastercard and 

Visa accepted 

North Carolina residents add 



Dealer Inquiries welcome 



MICRO TECHNOLOGY UNLIMITED 

P.O. Box 12106 

Raleigh, N.C. 27605 

919-833-1458 



J fflC 



Circle Reader Service No, 8 




Get the inside story on Commodore computers, 
direct from Commodore. Discover all the latest devel- 
opments in software, hardware and books... learn 
more about computing ... get many programs to type 
and save. You get all this and more when you sub- 
scribe to Commodore's own user magazines, 
Power/Play and Commodore Microcomputers. 

DON'T MISS ANOTHER ISSUE! 
Use the subscription card enclosed to 

SUBSCRIBE NOW! 




If you've been having a hard time 
teaching your newly-adopted computer 
there's more to life than fun and games, 
you're not alone. 

Now, you can introduce your Commodore 64™ to the Work Force: affordable, easy-to- 
use software and hardware that will unleash the power you always expected from your 
Commodore 64™, but thought you might never see. 



is simply the best word processing program of its 
kind—loaded with advanced features, yet so easy to 
use even a novice can get professional results. With 
SpellPack ", it even corrects your spelling! Once you've 
tried it, you'll never use a typewriter again, 

The Consultant™ 

(formerly Delphi's Oracle) 
is like a computerized filing cabinet with a 
brain. Organize files for recipes, albums, 
or the membership of your service club 
Then search, sort, arrange and 
analyze your information with speed 
and flexibility that's simply astounding. 

SpettPack™ 

teaches your 64 to spell. It checks an entire 
document in 2 to 4 minutes against a 
dictionary of over 20,000 words. And you 
can add up to 5,000 of your own 
specialized terms. Type letter perfect every 
time! 




is a magic box that lets you transform your humble 

home computer into a powerful business machine. It 

gives you the added power of BASIC 4.0, and lets 

you add IEEE disk drives, hard disk, virtually any 

parallel printer, and other peripherals without extra 

Interfaces. Completely software invisible. 



gives you crystal clear 80 column 

display. Using the highest quality 

hardware, we've eliminated the problems 

of snow, dizziness and interference. 

Basic 4.0 commands greatly simplify 

disk drive access. Switches easily from 

40 to 80 column display. 

Discover the true power of your 

Commodore 64 T ". Askyour dealer about 

the Commodore 64 T " Work Force, from 

Batteries Included — the company that 

doesn't leave anything out when it comes 

to making things simple for you. 



INCLUDED 



"Excellence in Software" Circle Reader Service No. 8 

These products have been developed specifically for Commodore computers by Batteries Included and are totally compatible with each other. For a full color brochure write to: 

1 86 Queen Street West, Toronto, Canada M5V 1 21 (41 6) 596-1 405 / 3303 Harbor Blvd., Costa Mesa, CA. 92626 (71 4) 979-0920 

64 AND COMMODORE 64 ARE REGISTERED TRADE MARKS OF COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES 



iing your computer business 



Commodore 64 in 
Community Service 

By W J. Crowley 

Recently while serving a term as mayor of our 
small city, I became aware of a problem that had 
plagued mayors and city officials for several years. 
Mayors, city clerks and councils often need to re- 
search city ordinances looking for specific pro- 
visions, regulations or rulings. City- officials are 
responsible for assuring that there are no conflict- 
ing or ineffective ordinances and that those which 
are in effect can be clearly and fairly enforced. 
Fulfilling that responsibility usually meant a tedious 
two or three hour search through "'OO or 800 docu- 
ments to assure the integrity of new ordinances. 

Before a new ordinance is adopted or an old one 
is amended, the suggestion is first introduced to the 
council as a bill and assigned a unique identifying 
number. When the bill is passed, it becomes either a 
new ordinance with a new number or an amend- 
ment to the original ordinance. So bill number 666 
might become ordinance 555 if it's a new one or 
number 12.3 if it happens to be the third revision to 
ordinance number 12. Bill numbers for those that 
fail to pass are simply skipped, so the bill number 
never matches the ordinance number. 

The usual practice for small cities is to file ordi- 
nances in a series of notebooks (nine in our case) in 
bill-number sequence. This makes it easy to see if 
any ordinances are skipped, misfiled or otherwise 
misplaced. However, with this scheme, it's impossi- 
ble to know if the ordinance you are reading is re- 
ally the last and most current issue. If you've found 
ordinance 212.7, how do you know there's not a 
212.8 or 212.9 around somewhere? To ease the 
search, some of the past officials filed amendments 
behind the original ordinance and some filed them 
in the normal bill-number order, but put a copy 
with the original. Of course, these solutions had 
their problems. If you found a copy of an ordi- 
nance in a book, you couldn't be sure it hadn't been 
superseded — you needed to search for the orig- 
inal anyway, just to make sure you had the latest 
document. On the other hand, if you did find an 
ordinance in the expected notebook location, 
you couldn't be sure an amendment wasn't 
filed elsewhere. 




In another effort, one of the councils had hired a 
consulting firm at a cost of some S8000 to "codify" 
the ordinances. This too resulted in frustration, be- 
cause the consultant merged and combined previ- 
ous ordinances, producing a reworded, unfamiliar 
document. As you might expect, the task was too 
burdensome. None of the councils, including mine, 
could understand the new document well enough 
to certify its accuracy and pass it into law, discarding 
all the old ordinances. 

With this experience, I decided the situation 
could best be treated as a database management 
problem. I bought a copy of Commodore's The 
Manager and began organizing the information. 
From a sample of about 50 ordinances selected at 
random, I developed a first draft of the classifica- 
tions shown in Table 1. 1 used type numbers in- 
stead of titles just to simplify typing. The Manager 
translates the numbers to names for me by using 
an arithmetic file. The keywords within each type 
were chosen by experience and updated as new 
ones seemed appropriate. With the samples in hand, 



20 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept. 'Oct. 1984 



Take Your Commodore's Commands 

And Put Them Where They Belong. 

On Your Keyboard. 

Now you can save time and avoid frustration. PC-DocuMate keyboard templates help you 
quickly recall needed commands, options, and formats, What you need is where you want it: at 
your fingertips. Each PC-DocuMate template is professionally designed by a software expert 
and is a comprehensive reference aid. Commands are logically and functionally organized to 
help you get the most from your software. And, each template is fully guaranteed to satisfy or 
your money back. 

PC-DocuMate keyboard templates are silk-screen printed on durable, non-glare plastic to 
exacting specifications for ease of use. Order yours today and join thousands of satisfied users 
who are saving time and effort. 

PC-Doc u Mates now available for: 
COMMODORE 64 



• Model CM641: 

• Model CR100: 

• Model QF100: 

• Model CM001: 

• Model ES100: 



BASIC, music, sprite reference 

(As shown) 

Calc Result 

Quick Brown Fox 

Do-it-Yourself 

EasyScript 



• Model CM201: 

• Model CM001: 



VIC 20 

BASIC, music, & more 
Do-it-Yourself 



If your favorite software package is not 
shown here, then order our "Do-it-Your- 
self" template (which includes a special 
pen and eraser) and develop your own 
custom keyboard template. 



BASIC functions are 
listed and defined 



BASIC commands and 

statements are fully 

documented 



Reference ddta for 
MUSIC programming 



Screen and color 
MEMORY MAP 

provided 




CONTROL KEYS 

ore documented 



COLOR code reference 



Commodore color 
key reference 



SPRITE programming 
reference 



EACH TEMPLATE IS ONLY $12.95 

HOW TO ORDER: Please send personal check, money order or MC/VISA credit card information, 
Please add $1.50 shipping and handling per order; foreign orders add $5.00 per unit (except 
Canada), USfundsonly. Sorry, NO COD's. NC residents add 4 1 /2% sales tax, Personal checks must 
clear our bank before shipment. For more information call 919-787-7703. Dealer inquiries 
invited. 



CALL TOLL FREE: 



>>/>^i 



1-800-762-7874 FOR FASTER SERVICE ON CREDIT CARD ORDERS! 
(or in NC call 919-787-7703) 



Systems Management Associates 

3700 Computer Dr., Dept.CM 

P.O. Box 20025 

Raleigh, North Carolina 27619 



OUR GUARANTEE: Use your template for 
10 days. If you are not completely satis- 
fied return it to us (undamaged)for a full 
refund. 



SMA is a dMsion of U.S. Software. Inc. Commodore M. VC 20. and EasyScript are trademarks oJ Commodore Busness Machines, trie Calc Result Is a Trademark of Handic Software ab. 
Qu'ck Brown Fox Is a trademark of Quickfe*. Inc.. FC-DccuMate is a trdernark of SfvV*. 



Circle Reader Service No. 9 



Table 1. Ordinance Types and Keywords 

Type 1. ADMINISTRATIVE 

(concern tug operations) 

Appointments 
Authorizations 

Bills 

Budge i 

Elections 

insurance 

Procedures 

Salaries 

Taxes 

Transfer of funds 

Type 2. FRANCHISE 

(granting special privileges) 

Cable TV 

Electricity 

Fireworks 

Garbage collection 

Gas 

Phone 

Type 3- PUBLIC IMPROVEMENT 

(regarding public works anil projects J 

Construction 

Education 

Health and Safety 

Roads and Bridges 

Services 

Sewer 

Water 

Type 4. REGULATORY 

(describing penalties for improper conduct) 

Animal control 

Authorizations 

Lake control 

Nuisance 

Property 

Traffic 
Trespassing 



the screen shown in Table 2 was designed to closely 
match the format of the ordinances so that it's 
easy to use. Then I entered the sample data and 
designed four reports sorted by bill number, ordi- 
nance number, type and title. 

After a little tuning up on the reports and data, 1 
took my tape recorder to city hall and reading from 
the ordinance notebook files, dictated a second 
sample of 50 ordinances. Whether due to urgent 
ncud or careful planning, the council reviewed my 
reports without further suggestions, commenting 
only on how useful the index would be and asking 
how soon it could be finished. The remainder of the 



work went quite rapidly. I used the tape recorder 
method to review two notebooks (about 200 doc- 
uments) on successive Saturday mornings and 
entered the data on weekday evenings. During 
this time I printed only "Bill Number" reports, 
checking them over after a tape was entered so that 
1 could mark up any corrections in the following 
Saturday's session. 

In four or five weeks the job was finished and 
the council now has an index for researching ordi- 
nances rather easily. Of course, I intend to update 
their database every six months or so, but even if 
I can't for some reason, the index summarizes 
twenty-odd years of activity, certainly reducing the 
research problem to reasonable proportions for 
many years to come. 

As an editorial comment, I might add that 1 was 
pleasantly surprised at how well we had all done 
over the years, keeping our bills and ordinances in 
logical order. Of course, I found a few instances 
where bill and ordinance numbers were duplicated, 
misfiled and one or two that were lost, but we didn't 
really have the wholesale problem one might fear. 
Once the index was made, it became quite easv to 
spot and correct discrepancies, so the project had 
helped to validate our city records in several ways. 

While work on the ordinances progressed, some 
of our citizens became interested in the project and 
suggested other community service-oriented ideas. 
Suggestions included keeping an inventory of the 
city property assigned to the police, sewer, and 
water departments and automating the city water 
billing operations and other mailing list functions. 
Whether I become "convinced" to take on one or 
another of these projects or some other interested 
computerist volunteers, the seed is planted. One 
project is completed and the community is better 
off for the presence of personal computers. 



Table 2. Sample Screen Format ORDINANCES 



**************************************** 



BILL # 
t ] 



TYPE 

[ I 



TITLE 



ORDINANCES # 
[ ] 



mm dd yy 

[ ] 



**************************************** 



22 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



using your computer education 



Kids Learn With 

Frenzy /Flip Flop, 1 

Gulp andArrow Graphics 





Commodore noiv offers the 
Milliken EduFun series of 
educational software for the 
Commodore 64. These four are 
among the first to become 
available. 

Frenzy 

DIVISION!!! A math skill area 
which parents, students and 
teachers approach with equal ap- 
prehension is suddenly simple 
thanks to Commodore's Milliken 
EduFun game Frenzy. 

The fear is removed from divi- 
sion as the operation is broken 
down into its component parts. 
Kids are given the opportunity 
to practice both the recall of multi- 
ples and repeated subtraction at 
various levels of difficult)'. Incor- 
rect answers are ignored and the 
program shows the same prob- 
lem until the correct solution 
is entered. 

Of course, completion of the 
20-problem series in either op- 
eration (subtraction or division) 
is rewarded with a determined 
amount of game playing time. 
Game time is calculated in sec- 
onds during the drill series as a 
hungry alligator gobbles up fish 
across the top of the screen. The 
player is made aware of this time 
factor by a ticking sound as the al- 
ligator slowly snaps up fish during 
the 20-question game. 

Both the sound and the graphics 
are motivating but do not distract 
the learner from the main task of 
solving the problems. Points are 
awarded for each correct answer 
and your child can add to the total 
by capturing extra numbers while 










playing the bonus game. 

The program is designed so that 
one child can participate. Scores 
for each child completing the 
bonus game will be displayed as 
the menu goes by. Related ac- 
tivities for reinforcing subtraction 
and division skills away from the 
computer are suggested. 

Flip Flop 

Math also has its more abstract 
concepts to be mastered. Flip Flop 
(game two on the disk) does a 
nice job of making the abstract 
more concrete. 

The player is presented with 
two randomly created shapes and 
must determine with a keystroke 
if one should be flipped, turned 
or slid to fit perfectly on top of the 
other. Color, size and shape are 
all determining factors and the op- 
tion that none of the manipula- 
tions are correct is also possible. 
Learners who get all ten in the 



series correct are given a sound 
and graphics reward. Score is kept 
at the bottom of the screen during 
the running of the program. 

Both Frenzy and Flip Flop come 
with easy to understand instruc- 
tions and teaching suggestions. 
AJso included is a reusable prac- 
tice and score card. The game 
format of both turns drill into de- 
light and encourages the student 
to try,. . just one more time. 

Gulp 

When the flashcards have long 
been forgotten but the basic facts 
still need to be mastered, sink a 
hook into Commodore's Milliken 
EduFun game Gulp. Gulp pro- 
vides your child with practice in 
basic addition and multiplication 
facts at a variety of difficulty levels. 

Twenty problems float by for 
your child to answer as a large 
fish chases a smaller one trying to 
eat it up as time passes. Correct re- 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



23 



spouses in the time you select (fast 
or slow) will allow the child to 
enjoy the Master Fishers game. 
Master Fishers is offered as a 
bonus for perfect completion of 
the set of 20 facts. High scores for 
the bonus game are displayed in 
an early frame and serve to foster 
competition; a real motivator in 
learning elementary math con- 
cepts. There are unlimited 
chances to change incorrect re- 
sponses and the problems are 
persistent until the correct solu- 
tion is entered. 

Arrow Graphics 

From tying a shoe to finding 
their way home, kids have a need 
to understand directions. Arroiv 
Graphics combines the difficult 
concepts of right and left with the 



tricks to improve your child's mas- 
tery over them. 

Players are asked to figure out 
the first three steps in the random 
pattern of arrows drawn by the 
computer. Those three steps are 
repeated at least three more times 
to create an intricate design in 
multicolor. Changing vantage 
point, from player to arrow, takes 
some practice but quickly be- 
comes a challenge your child 
won't walk away from. 

After successfully diagnosing 
ten patterns and having the com- 
puter highlight the proper arrow 
pathway-, the child is rewarded 
with some free time to create orig- 
inal arrow graphics. 

Incorrect directions are still 
executed b\ the pn igram. The in- 
correct design is drawn in addi- 



tion to the computer-generated 
path. This feature allows your 
child to contrast the path they have 
directed with the original. It pro- 
vides a graphic explanation of 
corrections necessary and gives in- 
centive for your child to try again. 

The programs come with sim- 
ple running instructions as well as 
related educational activities. In- 
cluded you will find a reusable 
drill and activity card for those 
times away from the computer. 

Arrow Graphics forces chil- 
dren to ileal with the factual 
{ right and left ) and the quantita- 
tive ( 1.2,3 ) while it encourages 
them to use that knowledge to 
create designs confined only by 
their imagination. C 



Why Blank "Cheat" Sheets? 



Because They're 
Better Blank 




O.K. So now you've got the 
best Commodore 64 in 
the world, and lots of 
complex software to 
run on it. One prob- 
lem. Unless you work 
with some ot these 
programs everyday 
or are a computer genius, 
who can keep all those commands 
straight? "F5" in one program means 
one thing, and "F5" in another program means 
something else. A lew companies do oUer a solu- 
tion a die cut "cheat" sheet that attaches to your key- 
board with all the commands of one program printed 
on it Great idea, unless you need them lor lO or 20 
programs. You could purchase another disk drive tor 
the same investment. Our solution? Simple. A pack oi 12 
lined cards, die cut to fit your keyboard and just 
waiting to be rilled with those problem commands you 
forget most often. Simple'' Yes, but effective. Now you 
can have all your program commands right at your 
linger tips on YOUR VERY OWN. custom designed 
"cheat" sheets Order a couple packs today! 



Please Hud me the following: 

Giy. Item Prtce 

Sets of 12 C -64 Key ba cud Cheat Sheets @$!5.95 S 



2 Packs (24 Sheets) ior S24.95 

Total for Merchandise Shipping and Handling 

5% Stale Ten (Wl Residents only) 

TOTAL ENCLOSED 
D Please Charge to. I MasterCard D VISA 

Number Eiplies . 

SHIP TO. Name 



2 00 



Address 

City 



State /Zip 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Bptes 8c Pieces, Inc. 



550 N. o8th Street 
Wauwatosa, Wl 53213 
414/257-1214 



COMMODORE OWNERS 
WE'LL CHECK YOU OUT 



Mr Tester TM 

Is your Commodore 64 TM 
Disk Drive, Printer, Memory, 
Joystick, Monitor and Sound 
Chip operating correctly? 

You may never know 
for sure. Mr. Tester is a 
complete diagnostic that 
tests: 
1.) Full joystick operation 

in all axis . 
2.) Continuous or standard 

comprehensive memory 

test. 
3.) CommodoreTH SID chip 

test for sound analysis. 
4.) Screen alignment and 

color test. 
5.) Complete read/write Disk 

Track and Block Test. 
6.) Diskette format analysis to 

check Floppys. 
7.) Complete printer test. 
8.) Complete keyboard test. 
9.) Cassette read/ write test. 

All this for only 

$29 95 




order from 

M-W Dist. Inc. 
1342B Route 23 
Butler, N.J. 07405 
201-838-9027 



Circle Reader Service No. 11 



Circle Reader Service No. 10 



using your computer travel 



The Globetrotting 
Computer 

By Matthew Kiell 

The airline tickets and passport are in hand. The 
bags are packed. Camera and film, guidebooks, an 
itinerary. Most important, your Commodore VIC 20, 
64, or SX64, printer and software — integral compo- 
nents in your plans. You're set for a semester ex- 
change at a Scandinavian university. . . or a three- 
week business trip to Japan . . . or (as in this writers 
case) a year in Paris. Soon vou'll arrive overseas, re- 
cuperate from the jetlag, plug in your personal 
computer and begin producing. Right? 

Wrong!! Unless you prepare carefully and 
thoroughly, you may encounter any one of numer- 
ous pitfalls. And when the debris from the tumble is 
brushed away, you may need to invest a great deal of 
time, money and aggravation when you can least af- 
ford it before being able to sit down to compute. Or 
in a few extreme cases, you may be without the use 
of your Commodore. 

The first problem is attitude — roar attitude. 
Most people think, "This is a free country." Forget 
that illusion. Back in 1959 (after which they gave 
up counting) there were 1,156,644 (often complex) 
state and federal laws. Many affect travelers with 
computers. And worldwide there are millions more 
laws, bureaucrats and law enforcement agents. 
Don't fight it. Don't view yourself as a free individual 
being hounded and persecuted: in the real world, 
you aren't. 

The story on international travel with personal 
computers has been fraught with misinformation, 
half truths and speculative answers. Such travel has 
unfortunately been made to appear sometimes far 
simpler and sometimes far more complex than it 
really is. 

The hardest problem may be simply getting com- 
plete, correct information, for you've entered the 
mysterious world of bureaucracies— not one or 
two, but many of them. Each works in a separate 
realm, often unaware of the others, sometimes even 
of its own workings. Also some people will try to 
convince you that travel with a computer is lis easy 
as earning a suitcase full of socks; others will paint 
an ominous scenario. Don't believe either extreme. 

To complicate matters, people you question mav 



not know how to deal with queries about comput- 
ers. By now. your computer may be your best friend; 
you may think the computer revolution has arrived 
and settled in. But in the bureaucratic world the 
microcomputer still raises eyebrows and leaves 
people speechless. 

This article doesn't provide all the answers for 
each traveler. Every country has its idiosyncratic 
rules and procedures, and the world comprises 169 
sovereign nations and 46 separately administrated 
territories. But this article does address the primary 
areas you must understand for intelligent interna- 
tional travel with a Commodore computer, provides 
some answers and will lead you more easily to most 
of the others. 

There is a lot to absorb here. Take a deep breath 
and prepare to dive into the deep, sometimes 
murky waters of international computer travel. 

WARNING: This article is addressed to a specific, 
though common, class of travelers — those who ( 1 ) 
take a Commodore computer abroad for their own 
or immediate family's personal use, (2) won't resell 
or dispose of it and (3) will return home with it. 




Photo BvDefilse Baneau 



Author Matthew Kiell displays adaptors for each of four different 
non-l'.S. electrical plugs. The tbree-prongedplug is (be adaptor 
fur Great Britain. The two-pronged plug he is holding is/or 
continental Europe. The black plug on the table is another 
adaptor for continental Europe and the u -bite one is for 
Australia and New Zealand. 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept'Ocl. 1964 



25 



Preparations 

Before stepping out your front door, you 
should take several steps to prepare your com- 
puter for travel. 

You wouldn't take your $200 camera abroad 
without a protective case. Your computer equip- 
ment needs protection, too. Luggage, even hand- 
carried, absorbs a beating in the course of trip. The 
boxes you bought your equipment in can serve the 
purpose. But their design is not compact — a con- 
sideration for carry-on baggage. However, a spe- 
cially made case will protect your Commodore just 
as well as a shipping box, in less space, with more 
style and less conspicuously. American Tourister, for 
instance, manufactures a case for VIC 20's and 64's, 
albeit steeply priced at $130 (phone: 800-341-6311). 
Like most commercial cases, it has a comfortable 
handle that enhances portability — a definite 
phis when scurrying to Gate 38 at the far end 
of the airport. 

Unlike buying a shirt, buying your computer just 
hefi >re going abroad is ill-advised. First, a brand new 
machine could arouse customs agents' suspicions 
concerning resale ( more on that later). Second, 
most defects and difficulties show up during the 
90-day warrant}' period You want to be sure your 
machine has no problems before traveling. Third, 
you will want to know and be comfortable with your 
equipment. A business trip is no time for learning 
the subtleties oi' Easy Scrip! or The Manager. And 
fourth, travelers to restricted nations need validated 
licenses ( more on that, too, later). You can't apply 
before buying your computer, and applications offi- 
cially lake three to eight weeks to process but may 
take four to six months. 

Before leaving, make back-ups for everything you 
can't afford to lose. Entrust those disks to someone 
you can contact in an emergency, If you are going 
where supplies will be scarce or nonexistent, take 
two or three times as many blank disks as you imag- 
ine you'll need, as well as several extra fuses. 

Make sure to pack enough manuals to insure no 
major problems, but don't overload yourself. You 
received several pounds of them when you bought 
vour computer; you probably have more now. 

Commerce Export Law 

Wherever you go, you will need a Commerce 
Department license for your equipment to leave 
the United States. However, for most travelers, 
that license involves no application. 

John Boidock, director of the Office of Export 
Administration, states in a signed letter, "Personal/ 
home computers are now defined to be personal ef- 
fects and are eligible to be exported under General 
License BAGGAGE as stipulated in [the Code of 




Federal Register, Title 15,] Regulation 371.6 . . . pro- 
vided that the computer is owned by and is in- 
tended for use by such person or members of his 
immediate family, and is not intended for sale." 

Most people may carry a microcomputer as per- 
sonal baggage — no questions asked. You needn't 
justify a need. If you want to take your Commodore 
to Cairo to use as a bookend, fine. A Commodore 
computer conforms to Commerce Department re- 
quirements concerning "reasonable and appropri- 
ate for personal use." They would, however, stop 
you if you tried to travel with an IBM mainframe, or 
technology with evident military applications or a 
computer designed for more than one person to 
use simultaneously. 

Most travelers, if stopped by authorities, must 
finesse their way through an uncomfortable en- 
counter armed with insufficient, confusing or wrong 
information. The facts would serve them better. 
Travelers to "free world" nations should know that 
General License exists and is theirs. 

To those unfamiliar with commerce law, the term 
"General License" may be confusing. Laymen think 
of licenses as cards or written declarations granting 
permission to own or do something. It is broader 
than that. A license is the government's permission 
granted by statute. You receive no official document, 
card or certificate for a General License. But don't 
confuse it with a "right;" this permission is a license 



26 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



bearing legal responsibilities. 

Although no formally issued (that is, "validated") 
license is required to travel with a computer in the 
free world, export laws do require a Shipper's Ex- 
port Declaration, available (for about 50c) from the 
Government Printing Office (North Capitol & H 
Streets, N.E., Washington, DC 20401), Customs Ser- 
vice and Commerce district offices and most well- 
stocked stationers. The form is simple, but, as you 
fill it out, bureaucracy strikes! Two arcane facts are 
needed: your General License Symbol and the 
Schedule B Commodity Xumber(s). 

The "symbol'* you need here is "BAGGAGE." That 
simple, uppercased word on the Declaration "con- 
stitute [s] a certification by the exporter that the 
terms, provisions, and conditions of the general 
license have been met" (371.2.b.l). The Schedule B 
numbers (supplied by the Census Bureau — figure 
that one out) are 676.2700 for your Commodore 
computer (officially an "automatic data processing 
unit"), 676.2855 for a printer (an "input/output 
unit") and 676.2870 for a modem. Any item valued 
below $500 doesn't need a Schedule B number. 
Fill out at least two, preferably more, copies of the 
Declaration and on departure present them at Cus- 
toms (which may prove inconvenient) or at your 
airline check-in. 

For more assistance with Commerce regulations, 
talk with an international trade specialist at the 
nearest Commerce office, or contact the Exporters 
Service Staff, office of Export Administration, Room 
1099A, Commerce Department. Washington. DC 
20230 (phone: 202-377-4811). 

Many travelers never get stopped and questioned 
at this stage because the Commerce Department has 
few personnel enforcing their regulations. Another 
agency, the Customs Service, is obligated to imple- 
ment most of Commerce's duties at ports of depar- 
ture. But Customs has its own problems, and most 
of its agents are stationed at arrivals terminals, not 
departures. Therefore, Commerce laws are often 
not stringently enforced. 

But in October, 1981, the Reagan administration 
implemented "an integrated Customs enforcement 
program to protect our national security by inter- 
cepting illegal high-technology exports including 
arms to Eastern Bloc countries'": Operation Exodus. 
This hazily understood program has unfortunately 
acquired sinister overtones. But well informed 
travelers with microcomputers shouldn't find this 
bit of Cold War politics threatening. A recent Cus- 
toms Service press release states, "Travelers leaving 
the country to most destinations should not have 
any problems when they take their personal com- 
puters or related instruments with them." The em- 
phasis is far more on suspicious unaccompanied 



shipments than on tourists' possessions. 

Yet if a Customs agent sees your Commodore, 
enough curiosity will be elicited for him to stop and 
question you. No, you're not in real danger of hav- 
ing your computer detained or confiscated if you 
are properly prepared. Yes, 8,046 items were de- 
tained in Operation Exodus' first two years. But 
the 2,987 items actually seized averaged $62,000 
each in value. 

What are "most destinations?" According to 
Commerce and Customs criteria (not Freedom 
House definitions), what is the "free world?" We 
can be more specific than the nebulous terms often 
batted about — "communist," "Soviet bloc," "free 
world." The Commerce Department places nations 
into seven "country groups" — Q, S, T, V, W, Y and Z 
(Reg. 370, Supp. 2). Canada is a special case, in no 
group and referred to by name in all laws; likewise 
tlie People's Republic of China. This list provides an 
interesting peek into U.S. international trade politics. 

Group Q: Romania. 

Group S: Libya. 

Group T: All North, Central, and South America, 
except Canada and Cuba. 

Group V: Southern Rhodesia, all countries in no 
other country group ( except Canada 
and Communist China). 

Group \V: Hungary, Poland. 

Group V: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Es- 
tonia, German Democratic Republic 
( including East Berlin), Laos, Latvia, 
Lithuania, Outer Mongolia, the USSR. 

Group Z: North Korea, Vietnam, Kampuchea, 
Cuba. 

John Boidock at the export administration office 
states, "The use of the General License BAGGAGE is 
permitted for exports of personal/home computers 
[i i tree \v< >rld destinaii< >ns in country gr< lups T and V 
[and Canada] only." As the list shows, however, that 
covers all but 19 nations (three of which are de 
facto Soviet states). For travel to any of these 19 na- 
tions, a validated license is required. ( Notwithstand- 
ing a New York Times article's claims, Yugoslavia is a 
Group V nation. ) 

If you plan to visit a "controlled destination," 
you must submit an Application for Export License 
( Form ITA-622P) to the Commerce Department; 
regulations 372.4-8 detail how to apply. ( Free world 
travelers may apply, if desired. ) You should write 
the following ( from 372.8. c ) on the application 
under "Additional Information" [Item 15]: "The 
commodities described on this application are to be 
temporarily exported for (state purpose of export) 
and returned promptly to the United States after 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Ocl. 19B4 



27 



J 



Stop Gambling, 
Start Winning. 



You will beat the dealer if you play Blackjack 
correctly. They haven't changed the rules. 
You can win just as easily in 1984 as you 
could in 1961 when the first Blackjack strate- 
gies were created- Spend the time to learn 
how. It will be well worth it. 

BLACKJACK TEACHER simulates, in precise 
detail, all of the events that transpire in actual 
casino play. The display screen depicts the 
top view of the Blackjack table. You interact 
with the program just as you would an actual 
game. Computer controlled players participate 
to enhance the simulation. All events occur in 
real-time. 

BLACKJACK TEACHER teaches seven differ- 
ent strategies, from basic to advanced count. 
This spectrum of strategies allows you to 
selecl one that suits your needs. 

BLACKJACK TEACHER monitors all of your 
betting and playing decisions to give you the 
feedback you need to learn effectively. By 
religiously practicing with the system, you 
will become an expert at the game faster than 
ever before possible. 

BLACKJACK TEACHER is the result of over 
ten years of computer-assisted Blackjack 
research; it is by far the most comprehensive 
Blackjack instruction system available. And 
of course, complete documentation is included. 

Note: asimplified version of the system which 
teaches only Basic Stralegy is available for 
the VIC 20. 



f 



Name . 



-FILL OUT AND MAIL TODAY - 



Address. 

City 

State 



-Zip 



□ COMMODORE 64 (S59.95) D Cassette 

□ VIC 20 (S19.95) □ Diskette 

□ Documentation Only (S4.95) 

Send check or Money order payable to: 
SOTA Enterprises, Inc. 
833 Garlield Ave, Suite 101 
South Pasadena, CA 91030 
Phone (213) 379-3068 

Postage Paid 

California residents add 6Vz% sales tax 

30 Day Money Back Guarantee 



their use abroad as authorized, unless other disposi- 
tion has been specifically requested and authorized 
in writing by the Office of Export Administration." 
Under Item 7, list yourself as the "ultimate con- 
signee." And under Item 12, provide a strong 
explanation of your need for your Commodore 
computer, preferably with documentation. Also you 
will need the Export Control Commodity Number; 
for electronic equipment, it's 1565A. 

The license, if granted, is for one year (though 
renewable). How likely is license approval to an in- 
dividual applying to a restricted nation? According 
to Tom Slitek of the Exporters Service Staff, "Nor- 
mally they would get it, but it's decided case by case. 
It depends where you're going and the sophistica- 
tion of the equipment. For instance, if you're a pro- 
fessor going to a Polish university engaged in lots of 
nuclear work, you may be turned down." 

If confronted by an overzealous (and underin- 
formed) Customs agent with seizure in mind, stay 
cool. Present a copy of your Shipper's Export Decla- 
ration and/or validated license, then use the follow- 
ing to document "personal use" and your right to 
carry your Commodore as a personal effect: your 
airline tickets, proving your primary destinations; 
receipts, indicating the computer's age and your 
ownership (the computer's serial number on the 
receipt is helpful ): a Commodore 20, 6-i or SX64 
brochure ( it describes the computer ); this article, 
so you can cite Com .tierce and Customs laws 
and procedures. 

All of these items will aid you again when you 
reach foreign customs agents. 

U.S. Customs Law 

U.S. Customs comes at the end of your travels. But 
much of your dealings with Customs must be han- 
dled at the beginning. Customs is there to regulate 
foreign commodities, making sure items originating 
overseas are both legal and properly regulated. 
Thus their two primary roles are confiscating con- 
traband and collecting import duties. (Operation 
Exodus was a supplemental job they got because 
of their wars dealing with smuggling. ) 

You must make sure that Customs on your re- 
turn home doesn't mistake your computer for con- 
traband or a foreign-bought item. To do this, you 
register your equipment on customs Form 4457 
before departing. (This procedure has nothing to 
do with licenses for leaving the United States, dis- 
cussed in the previous section.) You can register at 
the airport Customs office just before departure. 
I lowever, those offices follow business hours 
(Monday-Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.) that barely 
overlap with the busiest international departure 
periods. A truly efficient system. Some offices have 



28 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept /Oct. 1984 



slightly longer hours: New York operates from 8 
a.m. to 5 p.m.; Chicago 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. including 
Saturdays. But most east coast overseas flights leave 
more than 90 minutes after closing time, and most 
west coast flights less than 90 minutes after opening. 
Also, these offices can be inconveniently located in 
or near arrivals terminals, not departures. At some 
international airports (e.g., Kennedy in New York), 
customs agents are stationed at major airline 
check-in counters until midnight. 

A less nerve-wracking option than scurrying 
about the airport on departure day is to go some- 
time earlier either to a port of departure or one of 
the 45 Customs Service district offices, with your 
equipment, to register. 

Actually, your Commodore computer itself 
doesn't absolutely need Form 4457 registration. It's 
American-made and labeled " Made in USA." But if 
you own any foreign-manufactured accessories, you 
should definitely register. 

A less official last resort is a homemade approach. 
Leaving the bottom third of a sheet of paper blank, 
make a complete list, stating purchase dates and lo- 
cations. Make several photocopies. Sign and date 
every- copy. Have a notary public notarize them all. 
for from 500 to $5 per seal (the blank space will 
simplify the notary's job). It isn't as legally airtight as 
Form 4457, but should satisfy Customs, and that is 
the bottom line. Vincent Cheffo, an import specialist 
at Kennedy Airport, states that receipts may even 
satisfactorily prove previous ownership. 

Getting Through the Airport 

For many, a big problem will be just earning a 
computer and accessories — and the other baggage 
(remember, that's there, too) — down endless air- 
port corridors, even with the aid of strap- or handle- 
equipped cases or wheeled luggage carriers. 

Plan your time accordingly; pad your departure 
day schedule with a lot of time to negotiate the air- 
port obstacles and still make your flight. 

At security' checkpoints, remember what you are 
earning. Personal computers are designed to be 
black boxes — users slip disks into hidden drives, 
tap the keys and watch the screen. If everything goes 
right, owners never look inside, ever. To you, this is 
a wonder of technology. To airport security, it sets 
off mental alarms. Anything could be hidden inside. 
When the inspector asks about your box, don't 
reply, "It's a personal computer, dummy. Can't you 
see that?" He can't. He sees a potential bomb or con- 
traband container. 

Therefore, know how to open your computer 
safely. Have your dealer give a lesson as well as a 
brief tour of the interior to prepare you to do the 
same with an inspector. If you can't open your com- 



Stop Gambling. 
Start Winning. 



You will beat the dealer if you play Blackjack 
correctly. They haven't changed the rules. 
You can win just as easily in 1984 as you 
could in 1961 when the first Blackjack strate- 
gies were created. Spend the time to learn 
how. It will be well worth it. 

BLACKJACK TEACHER simulates, in precise 
detail, all of the events that transpire in actual 
casino play. The display screen depicts the 
top view of the Blackjack table. You interact 
with the program just as you would an actual 
game. Computer controlled players participate 
to enhance the simulation. All events occur in 
real-time. 

BLACKJACK TEACHER teaches seven differ- 
ent strategies, from basic to advanced count. 
This spectrum of strategies allows you to 
select one that suits your needs. 

BLACKJACK TEACHER monitors all of your 
betting and playing decisions to give you the 
feedback you need to learn effectively- By 
religiously practicing with ihe system, you 
will become an expert at the game faster than 
ever before possible. 

BLACKJACK TEACHER is the result of over 
ten years of computer-assisted Blackjack 
research; it is by tar the most comprehensive 
Blackjack instruction system available. And 
of course, complete docu mentation i s included . 

Note; a simplified version of thesystem which 
teaches only Basic Strategy is available for 
ihe VIC 20. 



J 

4 



Name . 



-FILL OUT AND MAIL TODAY - 



Address_ 

City 

State 



-Zip 



□ COMMODORE 64 ($59.95) □ Cassette 

□ VIC 20 ($19.95) □ Diskette 

□ Documentation Only ($4.95) 

Send check or Money order payable to: 
SOTA Enterprises, Inc. 
833 Garfield Ave, Suite 101 
South Pasadena, CA 91030 
Phone (213) 379-3068 

Postage Paid 

California residents add 6Vi% sales tax 

30 Day Money Back Guarantee 



f 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 29 



puter for inspection, the guard will if he so desires. 
Do you want a Bangladeshi border guard, who may 
never have seen a computer before, attacking your 
computer's insides? 

Travelers have reported that security guards 
sometimes want a demonstration, either to find out 
what the computer is or perhaps to make sure it 
works and that the TV tube doesn't contain heroin. 
Be ready to plug in (if the electric power supply at 
the security post is compatible with your computer) 
and show a few work files. 

Airport x-ray machines are a continuing con- 
troversy. You will encounter them in almost all U.S. 
airports on departure and often at foreign customs 
on arrival. According to Commodore's service de- 
partment, the x-ray machines will not damage your 
computer. Whether the machines' x-rays and mag- 
netic fields endanger disks remains under dispute. 
Memorex test engineer Bob Cassidy has been 
quoted as saying, "Short of getting a super-strong 
electromagnetic field right next to the disk carrier, 
it would be almost impossible to change data on a 
disk." But Satellite Business Systems' Lewis Ray is 
wary of how finely adjusted the devices are and how 
strong the field may be. 

Commodore's service people consider the walk- 
through scanners the safest device; the carry-on 
baggage scanners are perhaps a bit more hazardous. 
They also note that putting all of your disks in your 
checked-in luggage is a bit of a gamble; airports oc- 
casionally subject random bags to high-power radia- 
tion. Hand inspection of disks followed by passing 
them around any scanning devices remains the pre- 
ferred procedure. 

But hand inspection is not an inalienable right. If 
inspectors wish to subject your possessions — all of 
them — to x-rays (and thorough searches), the law 
and the sheer force of circumstances favor them. 
Your only recourse is friendly persuasion. Other 
situations in your travels may warrant displays of 
anger, indignation and power; airport security is not 
one of them. International correspondent David 
Kline once wrote about the unenviable experience 
of facing a rifle-toting soldier at Customs in Karachi. 
Don't be in a rush to get through. 

The Swiss and Parisians are among the few 
who are adamant that everything — hardware and 
software — must be x-rayed. They insist their ma- 
chines are safe. In most other nations, friendly re- 
quests eventually are honored, at least for disks. 

In Flight 

Airlines have size limits for carry-on baggage; 
bags must be small enough to go under your seat. 
Most commonly, the dimensions, added together, 
may not exceed 45 inches. An American Tourister 



Commodore case (for VIC 20's and 64 's) measures 
23" x 15-3/4" x 7-1/4"— 46 inches overall; an SX64 
measures 16" x 14.6" x 5"— an impressively small 
35.6 inches overall, However, most commercially 
manufactured cases measure just over the 45-inch 
limit. Also, airlines further stipulate maximum, for 
each dimension, cutting down the actual limit. 
Delta's height maximum, for instance, is 7 inches. 
Some airlines are even more restrictive. Icelandair 
officially permits 13" X 13" x 8". 

Some people assume that having the computer 
under their seat will be cramping, and worry that 
their even- move may be a kick in their Commo- 
dore's side. University of Chicago biologist Jeanne 
Altmann, however, prefers her computer there for 
her flights to Kenya, often 24 hours long, finding it 
adds comfort by acting as a footrest. And although 
promotional brochures talk of stowing it overhead, 
some types of racks would be dangerous; I've flown 
when racks spontaneously popped open every 15 
minutes, dumping their contents. 

Most airlines have some cabin storage for gar- 
ment bags and the like. Sometimes you can arrange 
to stow your equipment there. But many airlines 
absolutely refuse to use the space for anything but 
garment bags. 

Unlike at airport security, where pressure tactics 
are not advised, travelers should remember they 
have some power— the power of the purse. Your 
patronage now and in the future is wanted. If airline 
personnel see your computer and say, "No, it can't 
come on board," note the computer is under 45 
inches, then indicate that if it doesn't go on board, 
you don't. Threaten to switch airlines. Don't let them 
strong-arm you into shipping it as cargo. Unless 
you have carefully packed, padded and sealed your 
Commodore for such handling, it is in mortal 
danger. Whether or not baggage handlers are the 
gorillas portrayed in TV commercials, they aren't 
trained to coddle computers. Their jobs are speed 
and volume oriented, which runs contrarv to pro- 
viding tender loving care. 

Sometimes, though, equipment simply can't be 
taken onboard because it is too large. Then you 
must turn it over to the gorillas. In such cases, your 
original packing box may be sufficient, with its pro- 
tective foam, but (unfortunately again for your wal- 
let) a commercially-made shipping box may be in 
order, such as those made by ATS Cases of Natick, 
Massachusetts (phone: 617-653-6724). It is often 
the only smart route for items that are too large 
to take onboard as carry-on luggage. They run from 
$100 to $300. 

Foreign Customs and Garnets 

Rarely, if ever, must travelers entering a nation 



30 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



pay duties on any personal items they intend to take 
with them when they leave. But to ensure against 
your selling the equipment in their country, most 
nations' customs policies require a security deposit 
(a "bond" ). usually equaling the applicable duty and 
taxes. In West Germany it's 5.1% of your equip- 
ment's value; Holland, about 31%; Iceland, just 1%. 
In nations with rampant inflation or very tight im- 
port regulations, the security can be extremely high: 
60% in Jamaica; 60-110% in Kenya; 110% in Israel 

II you plan many border crossings or your time 
abroad will be precious, the answer may be an In- 
ternational Chamber of Commerce ATA ("admission 
temporaire/temporary admission") Garnet, an in- 
ternational customs document that simplifies cus- 
toms procedures. It's used mostly by professionals 
and business people and is both a customs entry 
document and customs bond, guaranteeing that all 
duties and excise taxes will be paid if the item is not 
exported within the prescribed time. 

The one-year, non-renewable carnet is honored 
in at least 39 countries, including all of Europe ex- 
cept the I ISSR and Albania ( and perhaps Andorra, 
Liechtenstein and Malta ). If your plans involve 
traveling in non-honoring nations or more than a 
year abroad, don't consider it. 

Carnets are not cheap. One that covers $500- 
$4,999.99 in merchandise costs $100. Also, a deposit 
of 40% of your items' value is required. A $20 insur- 
ance policy can satisfy this and may be simpler than 
tying up $500- $1,000. Applications are processed 
through the U.S. Council for International 
Business — in New York, the Chicago suburb of 
Schaumburg, Los Angeles and San Francisco. 

As an alternative, a customs broker in the nation 
you will visit can bond a customs entry; a reputable 
broker in America can get a name and address. Yet 
a third option is a bank letter of credit or certified 
check. This option requires your freezing a large 
amount of money in a bank account, but at least it is 
yours and earning interest. A classic Catch-22 exists 
with this option, however. Lor what amount do you 
make the bond or letter of credit? You must do it in 
advance, hut the amount of duty/security is deter- 
mined when you go through customs. Also, if you 
plan to cross many national borders, this option is 
not practical. 

As mentioned earlier, your equipment's age can 
be important. In Australia, for instance, if it's more 
than a year old, customs passes it without duties or 
deposit if you declare it for personal use. 

Foreign embassies (in Washington. D.C. ) and 
consulates { usually in New York, Chicago and on the 
West Coast) can be curiously unhelpful on customs 
matters; they are best for very basic questions and 
addresses. National tourist offices may prove help- 



50,000^ 
COMAL USERS! 

YOU ARE INVITED TO JOIN THEM 



The ENHANCED COMAL* PAK includes: 

• LOGO' Turtle Graphics 

• 40 Graphics and Sprite Commands 

• Run-time Compiler 

• FAST Program Execution 

• Print Using Auto Formatting 

• Program Structures 

• Long Variable Names 

• Local and Global Variables 

• Parameter Passing 

• Auto Line Numbering Renum 

• Merge Program Segments 

• Stop Key Disable Enable 
PLUS 

• Pocket Reference Card 

• COMAL Information Booklet 

• Many Sample Programs 

• Help Files Errors File 

ALL FOR ONLY $19.95 

For Commodore 64 '" wilh I5dl disk drive. 

THE PRODUCTIVE 
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE 

Send check or Money Order plus S2 handling to: COMAL Users 
Group, U.S.A.. Limited. 5501 Groveland Ter.. Madison, Wl 53716 
phone: (608) 2224432. 

t esiimaled t Version O.M include* best of LOGO, besi of PASCAL best of 
BASIC, all In one. 

TRADEMARKS: Commodore 64 of Commodore Efeclronics Ltd. Coptoin COMAL of 
COMAL Users Group U.S.A. Lid 



TEACHERS 

useful programs for COMMODORE 64™ and PET® 

MASTER GRADES — The complete grading and atten- 
dance system. Designed lor the novice computer user. 
Handles up to 200 students in one file and cumulative 
points to 9999. Even prints 3 kinds of progress notes to 
parents. Thousands now in use. Disk only. 

Still only S39.50 
TESTMASTER — The complete test and quiz development 
system. Produces tests with an assortment of up to 100 
true-false, multiple choice, completion, and short answer 
items. End your test re-typing forever. Disk only. S35.00 

FOOTBALL SCOUT — Get ready now for the coming season 
and beat your opposition. Accepts 15 user-delined cate- 
gories and up to 50 plays per game. Six scouting files may 
be linked to give a report showing 300 plays on the learn 
scouted. Disk only. $79.50 

These programs require 32K in the Commodore PET, 

Please write for our flyer of other useful and educational 
programs. 

VISA and Mastercard accepted. 
Please add $2.00 per disk for postage and handling. 



L 




MIDWEST SOFTWARE 

■ A DIVISION OF ZERO-ONE. LTD. 

Box 214 • Farmington, Ml 48024 

Phone (313)477-0897 



TM AND ' ARE REG STEREO TRADEMARKS Of COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES. INC 






Circle Reader Service No. 12 



t'ul, though more on other matters than customs. 
And binational commerce associations can be use- 
ful. But, if possible, contact the Bureau of Customs 
in the nation(s) you will visit. 

Ask about security deposits, their permitted form, 
their amount, whether the ATA Garnet is accepted 
and whether a Commodore computer entering 
their country temporarily for personal use is 
exempt from duties or security deposits. Emphasize 
the item's personal nature; mention its age. The re- 
sult may be frustratingly inconclusive. Or you may 
get official permission to enter a country without 
depositing security, as I received from Icelandic 
authorities when 1 explained my circumstances. 

This is all policy, however — not day-to-day prac- 
tice. Many travelers tell customs agents that their 
computer is "like a typewriter." International corre- 
spondent David Kline, who used a microcomputer 
in Afghanistan and Pakistan, tised the term "I lolly- 
wood typewriter," delivered with a smile. I le also 
showed brochures, proving its "innocent albeit 
complicated nature.'" to give "visual proof that the 
computer is... a consumer item." 

The "typewriter" explanation may not help much 
in Bulgaria, though, where the government requires 
registration of all typewriters and has confiscated 
many as subversive instruments. And many Iron 
Curtain customs agents will suspect CIA ties of any 
American with any high-tech equipment. 

Such nations notwithstanding, travelers usually 
clear customs without placing any bond and without 
carnets or special dispensations. This is obviously a 
gamble, depending on the trade atmosphere at the 
moment and the agent's disposition, but most sea- 
soned travelers suggest not a large gamble. The 
odds favor you. Lose, however, and you can lose big. 

The U.S. Passport Office, Department of State 
(Washington, DC 2052-t ), may also aid you with in- 
formation on foreign nations . They publish "Coun- 
try Information Notices'" for many areas, as well as 
nine free booklets titled, "Tips for Travelers to. . ." 
including booklets for Cuba, Eastern Europe, Com- 
munist China and the USSR. 

Sing the Computer Electric 

You've negotiated the labyrinth of government 
and security officials. You've surmounted the moun- 
tain of bureaucratic paperwork. You are at your des- 
tination, unpacked, refreshed and ready to work. 
Finally! Right? 

Weil, not quite. You still need >afe, dependable 
compatible electricity. Without it your computer 
equipment is indeed an expensive paperweight. 

Except for some of the western hemisphere 
(Canada, Mexico, some of the Caribbean ). most of 
the world does not use 120-volt, AC, 60 Hz power 



or an American-type outlet plug. Much of the world 
runs on approximately 220 volts AC at 50 Hz. Britain 
runs on 2-t0-250 volts; some regions use 110 volts 

at 50 I Iz and other unique voltage idiosyncrasies 
abound. And there are four standard types of plugs. 

Lists of electrical currents worldwide often label 
nations "110" or "220." But the small print usually 
mentions that " 1 10" means 1 10 to 160 volts and 
"220" means 200 to 260 volts. A useful starting point 
is the (albeit promotional) booklet, "Foreign Elec- 
tricity Is No Deep Dark Secret," printed by the 
Franzus Company, 352 Park Avenue South, New 
York, NT 10010. Just send a stamped, self-addressed 
business envelope. 

Travel books are mildly helpful but surprisingly 
lacking. National tourist offices, consulates, embas- 
sies and trade commissions may help, but all pro- 
vide somewhat idealized information. If possible, 
also find a \cw well informed people who have lived 
where you plan to visit. 

According to Commodore's service department, 
Commodore guarantees their computers' operation 
within a 105-125-volt range (2 10-235 volts when set 
for 220 and a similar range for British 240-250). But 
some places, as I've hinted, are beyond safe limits. 
A few remote parts of Denmark still use 380-volt 
power. And, though most of Colombia is 110-volt, 
B< >gota. the capital, is an unusual 150 volts. And per- 
haps the most important voltage anomaly is Japan's 
110 volts. Special transformers are needed for these 
nations. And DC power is still found, although rarely. 

How you approach the electricity problem de- 
pends on your computer. One set of rules applies to 
the Y1C 20 and 64, another to the SX64. 

The VIC 20 and 64 have external power boxes 
that convert 110- 120-volt AC current to 12-volt DC. 
The simplest approach is to buy a power box made 
for the nation you'll be visiting. That purchase will 
have to wait until you arrive abroad. Writing to the 
distributor in that nation beforehand for details 
may be advisable. (Distributors' addresses are avail- 
able from Commodore International Sales in the 
Bahamas— Shirley & Victoria, P.O. Box N-10256, 
Nassau, Bahamas 20240; telephone 809-324-3373.) 

Option two is an isolation auto transformer, 
available from most major electronics suppliers in 
the United States and even more readily available 
in major department stores in Europe. They range 
from Sl-t devices to SI 50 ones that will support a 
whole system. 

Bttt a problem remains: your monitor. Take it 
with you and you'll need a transformer (forcing you 
to choose the expensive end of option two 1 Your 
monitor will then work, but a line will constantly 
migrate down the screen because of the asynchrony 
between your 60 I Iz set and the 50 Hz current. 



32 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Ocl. 1984 




You may think, "I'll buy or rent a monitor mere." 
Don't. Your American computer would require 
major circuitry changes to work with the foreign set. 

The SX64 is an entirely different matter. It's a 
single unit with an internal power source. Unlike 
some computers, it has no voltage switch, external 
or internal. You will need to use an isolation auto 
transformer. Wherever you go, be sure you have a 
transformer designed for the voltage where you 
are traveling. 

WARNING: The device you need is an isolation 
transformer. Don't confuse this with what's available 
from the Franzus Company or Radio Shack, which 
is a convenor. Though okay for most small appli- 
ances (contact lens sterilizers, shavers, etc), the 
$20-325 convenors cannot be used with electronic 
equipment, though they work with batten' recharg- 
ers. The) - create a "square wave," crudely chopping 
off the tops and bottoms of a wave to change 220 
to 110. 

Finally — yes, there's more — you may need a plug 
adaptor to adapt your American plug to fit a foreign 
socket. You needn't do as a writer in PC World did; 
he cut the plug off. Large hardware stores, luggage 
shops, electronics stores (such as Radio Shack) and 
big department stores cany the four types of plug 
adaptors (one adaptor for about $2.50; sets of the 
four varieties for about $7.50). 

But remember that these adaptors are for 
two-prong American plugs, not the three-prong 
grounded plugs on your equipment. Adaptors for 
three-prong plugs are available, but harder to find. 
Otherwise, you will also need 3-to-2-prong adap- 
tors, preferably with long ground wires. 

You must also remember any peripherals, espe- 
cially if they are not Commodore machines. They 
may need a different method of adaptation than 
your computer. 



Another more circuitous option does exist. It in- 
volves a popular convenor, a 12-volt DC battery and 
a 12-volt DC-to-110-volt-AC convenor (with a power 
drain warning light). This is a particularly bizarre 
setup for VIC 20's and 64s. The battery drain with 
such an arrangement will be high, necessitating fre- 
quent recharging. 

Is electricity where you're going dependable 
and steady, however? Blackouts and brownouts are 
common in most Third World nations. Many Carib- 
bean islands frequently lose power. In Nepal they 
come daily. Even some industrialized nations have 
erratic power. I was warned that Parisian electricity 
varies and can create problems. Italian power, 
though officially 50 Hz, actually runs between 42 
and 50 Hz. The lower level is dangerously below- 
most computers' stated range of 50-60 Hz and may 
eventually burn your computer out. 

Travelers to tropical regions, especially those with 
SX64's, should consider strongly some sort of bat- 
tery. And in all circumstances, battery power (be- 
yond the strange option already described) is worth 
investigating. It circumvents erratic power supplies 
and blackouts and the DC current runs your com- 
puter cooler, avoiding the overheating that can be 
a real problem in hot, humid climates. 

But in extreme situations you will have no power 
lines available. What then? Biologist Jeanne Altmann 
has conquered that problem in rural Kenya. "We 
run our computers and printers off solar panels in 
the field and keep them in a thatched-roof adobe 
building. Our main problem is dust protection, for 
the printer more than the computer." 

Last, back in civilization, a bit of irksome trivia. 
Man)' European hotels provide no free sockets for 
patrons. Lamp wires run directly into the walls, or 
the plugs are permanently fixed in their sockets 
because European electricity is so costly. 

(Continued On 1'auc 117) 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



33 



understanding your computer programmers tips 



Random Thoughts 

Part 7: Fun and Games 



Bv Mark /.immermann 



The last few articles in this series have gotten a 
little mathematical. There's a need for math and I'll 
get back to it in future columns. This time, though, 
1 want to discuss some applications of random num- 
bers to that popular subject, computer games and 
recreations. Far too many games and audio/video 
demonstrations are totally predictable — they should 
have some random elements in them for variety! 

Levels of Randomness 

Many of you have played Pacman in the video 

arcades or on home computers. As you probably re- 
call, the original Pacman had no random factors in 
it. Once you learned the patterns to move along, you 
would never lose. You could even play blindfolded 
if you knew the liming of the pattern moves well 
enough. This lack of variation made the original 
Pacman a rather dull game after a while. 

Many computer programs to play chess and other 
games have a similar lack of variation. Once you fig- 
ure out a winning sequence, you can be sure that 
the dumb machine will fall into the same trap time 
after time. You can handicap yourself, perhaps play- 
ing a bad move once in a while, in order to keep 
seeing new variations... but that's not much fun. 

What's needed in all of these cases is randomness 
(in a calculated way). And there are many degrees 
of randomness, all of which should be considered. 

Take chess as an example. At the lowest level of 
randomness, a program should use a random factor 
to decide between two moves which seem to be 
equally strong. This is a common technique in 
modern microcomputer chess programs and it 
gives some variety in most games, as long as equally 
strong moves come up fairly often in the program's 
decision process. Going a step beyond this, at the 
next level of randomness, a program should occa- 
sionally play a move it thinks is plausible but clearly 
inferior. This kind of choice should happen ran- 
domly at least once or twice per game. Such a stra- 
tegy would keep the machine from falling into the 
same deadly trap over and over. 

At a still higher level of randomness, a program 



should decide its overall strategy according to a 
random factor. In some games, it should play ag- 
gressively; in others, defensively. It could vary the 
settings of its internal parameters in a random pat- 
tern within reasonable limits. For instance, a rook 
could be valued as somewhere between the and six 
pawns, instead of having a fixed value of five. Some 
amount of variation could occur within a game, too, 
but that should be less than the variation between 
games. It makes more sense to play a consistent strat- 
egy. The human opponent doesn't get the feeling 
that he/she is playing a manic-depressive that way. 

The higher we go in levels of randomness, the 
more human the program is becoming. At the next 
level, it should begin to remember from game to 
game and learn from experience. Since previous 
games and experiences have random components 
in them, the result will necessarily be random to 
some degree. A copy of the program owned by a 
grandmaster might become a considerably stronger 
player than one owned by a rank amateur, 

If we go much higher in randomness, our pro- 
gram will ik) longer be merely a chess program! It 
will get into real artificial intelligence, where it tries 
id understand its opponent and take advantage of 
his/her weaknesses. The program will also evolve 
as lime goes by, perhaps mutating into something 
which the author won't even recognize! It may re- 
fuse to play chess any more or start to make up vari- 
ations on the game where thepieces have different 
powers and patterns of movements and the players 
have goals other than checkmate. Science fiction 
stories have been written along these themes. They 
mav become true within the near future. 

Random Automated Games 

tf you recognize the many possible levels of ran- 
domness, you can use them effectively to add inter- 
est to your programs. I almost always begin at a low- 
level and work upwards. It's easiest to insert ran- 
dom elements in a structured program where key 
events occur in subroutines which can be modified 
without changing the rest of the logic. 



34 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



I frequently like to leave a computer running 
with an interesting display. That sometimes makes 
it easier to explain to visitors what I'm doing and 
it gives me something to look at besides a blank 
screen when I'm daydreaming. One fertile method 
for generating interesting, dynamic displays is to 
automate a game. Design a strategy for the com- 
puter to play against itself. This works particularly 
well with visually oriented games with lots of 
dynamic action. 

Recently, for instance, 1 automated the game 
Deflection, a classic that was first programmed lor 
the old Commodore PET in 1978 by Fred Duniap. 
The game simply displays a ball (as in Pong ) which 
moves horizontally or vertically across the screen 
and bounces off the walls. The human player has 
to hit the slash or backwards slash key to lay down 
deflecting barriers which change the ball's direction 
of motion when they Lire encountered. The goal is to 
control the ball's motion so that ii hits and destroys 
the targets which are scattered across the initial 
display. Nice sound effects accompany each bounce 
of the ball. 

To automate Deflection, my first thought was 
simply to let the computer randomly throw down 
a slash or backwards slash once every ten seconds. 
(Thai is, I began at the lowest level of randomness 
with simple random moves. ) 1 inserted the ran- 
domly generated choices at the point in the pro- 
gram where the player's move was sensed. This 
seemed to work for a while and gave nice visual 
results. But after a few tests, I discovered that the 
random moves occasionally got the ball stuck 
into a closed loop pattern of moves from which 
it never could break out. That was unacceptable. .. 
it made the game degenerate into a boring repeti- 
tive sequence. 

I got out of that trap by moving to a higher level 
of randomness. I altered the rules of the game so 
that the computer had powers that a human player 
didn't. I let the machine break out of simple closed 
loops by writing over its own previously placed 
moves. That worked for awhile, until I ran into a 
situation where a very complicated loop developed. 
The loop had a period of exactly ten seconds. But 
whenever the computer made a new move, it fell 
on top of the move it had just made. Unfortunately, 
neither choosing a slash nor a backwards slash got 
the machine out of that trap! 

To escape, 1 inserted an idea from another higher 
level of randomness. 1 made the machine's strategy 
a bit more random itself. Instead of a new random 
move every ten seconds, I made the computer move 
at a random time, distributed between ten and 20 
seconds apart. With that modification, it nowplavs 
a visually interesting game and never gets trapped 
into a dull infinite loop. (Continued On Page SI) 



CAPTAIN COMAL 
STRIKES BACK 



THE CAPTAIN RECOMMENDS: 

• COMMODORE 6fl~ COMAL 0.14 System Disk: S19.95 

• COMAL TODAY NEWSLETTER 

Sample Copy: S2 
Subscription (6 issues): S14.95 

• COMAL TODAY DISKS 

individual Disk: S14.95 
Subscription (6 disks): S59.90 

• COMAL HANDBOOK 

Reference Book. 334 pages: S18.95 

Book and Disk with programs from Book: S39.90 

• FOUNDATIONS IN COMPUTER STUDIES WITH COMAL 

Tutorial Text, 313 pages: S19.95 

Book and Disk with programs from book: S39.90 

• STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING WITH COMAL 

Tutorial Text, 266 pages: S24.9S 

Book and Disk with programs from book: S39.90 

• BEGINNING COMAL 

Tutorial Text, 333 pages: S19.95 

Book and Disk with programs from book: S39.90 

• CAPTAIN COMAL GETS ORGANIZED 

Applications Tutorial, 102 pages 
Book and Disk package: S19.95 

• STARTING WITH COMAL 

Tutorial Text: S18.95 (due in stock June 1984) 

Ail items crocked for quick delivery All Disks are 1541 I 40J0 format. Send eneefc or Wonev 
Order in us Dollars oius 52 ship ping, handling per book to 

COMAL USERS CROUP, U.S.A., LIMITED 

5501 Groveland Ter, Madison, Wl 53716 
phone: (608) 222-4432 

TPADE marks: commodore 6d of Commodore Electronics Ltd ; Captain COMAL of COM- 
AL Users Croup. USA. Ltd 



Ask Someone Who Knows 

If you enjoy Jim Strasma's many books, and his 
articles in this and other magazines, you'll be glad 
he also edits his own highly-acclaimed computer 
magazine, now in its sixth year of continuous 
publication. Written just for owners of Com- 
modore's many computers, each Midnite Software 
Gazette contains hundreds of brief, honest 
reviews. 

Midnite also features timely Commodore" 
news, hints and articles, all organized for instant 
reference, and never a wasted word. Whether you 
are just beginning or a long-time hobbyist, each 
issue will help you and your computer to work 
together effectively. 

A six issue annual subscription is $23. To 
subscribe, or request a sample issue, just write: 

MIDNITE SOFTWARE GAZETTE 

P.O. Box 1747 

Champaign, IL 61820 

You'll be glad you did! 



Circle Reader Service No. 13 



Commodore 



hi: M -H i Tf-T-1 



Software... 



-TrwriiiiiitiiiirnrrA 



Business 



Computer Systems don't have 
to be expensive to be effective 
— even in business. Commodore 
has been proving that for years. 









v-^ 




Now your Commodore 64 combined with a full-range 

of application software means business when you do. 

The following practical, easy to use programs will 

help you get organized: 

THE MANAGER allows you to design and 

organize your own filing systems, organize your 

collections and structure your addresses and 

sales records. At the same time it offers screen editing 

and report generation capability. 

Word Processing systems have made it easier for 

even the uninitiated to prepare professional reports 

and presentations. The Commodore EASY 

SCRIPT program guides you painlessly to become 

an expert in report preparations. 
It allows preparation of standard letters, tabbing, 
easy updates, form contracts and agreements . . . 
and, with the magic of EASY SPELL 
makes sure your spelling errors are picked 
up . . . automatically. . . and gives you page 
and manuscript count. You can even add 
your own words into the vocabulary 
for checking! ! If you're inter- 
ested in "What If" issues for 
^ your business, budgeting, 
sales forecasting, cost 
control or performance 
analysis, then our EASY 
64 is for you. It's one of the 
most powerful, easy to use spreadsheet 
programs on the marketplace today. 
Commodore 64 productivity 
software — Sophisticated 
business packages at an 
Unsophisticated price! ! 

ft commodore 

v COMPUTERS 

First In Quality Software 



■ Bag ; 

sip 



w 





i 




m PI 



1 



■■■■Dl I 











> 




OuesKbr 
Enhanced 
RdcIucHuIIli: 

Obtain increased value from your computer 

with Commodore's own top-notch productivity 

software, which includes word processing, 

electronic spreadsheets, database management 

systems, mailing lists, a finance series, 

spelling checkers and graphics. 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 
SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1984 




PHOTOGRAPHER— ROBERT EMMOTT 




By Paul Goheen, 

Tom Ziegler 

and 

Lynn Kachelries 

Commodi ire Software 

Cjomrnocbre 
Meets the 
Challenge 

Integrated 

Software for the Commodore 

Plus/4 Computer 

Over the years, Commodore has 
become number one in the world 
of microcomputers largely because 
of its commitment to providing the 
best computer at the best price. 

Commodore's newest micro- 
computer, the Commodore 
Plus/4 ( formerly called the 264 ), 
has been designed to continue 
this commitment by including the 
latest in productivity. Its produc- 
tivity software features include 
built-in word processing, data- 
base, spreadsheet and graphics. 
In addition, it also provides 
enhanced BASIC, 64K memory 
and programmable function keys, 
one of which software authors can 
use to provide an easy link to ex- 
planations about their products. 

The integrated productivity 
software built into the Plus/4 
computer includes four programs: 
a file manager, spreadsheet, word 
processor and a graphics program. 

The file manager allows the 
user to collect, store, organize and 
retrieve information such as mail- 
ing lists, inventories, personal 
files, business files and recipes. 
Sorting information and reor- 
ganizing data is especially useful 
in creating form letters, labels and 
reports. It also allows the design 
of individual applications without 
having to program the computer 



or learn any complicated com- 
mands. It is integrated to work 
with the word processor. 

The spreadsheet offers a giant 

electronic spreadsheet that auto- 
matically performs complicated 
calculations and projections. This 
powerful calculation tool is ideal 
for home or business budgeting, 
sales projections, management 
decisions, loan/mortgage charts, 
profit/loss statements and income 
tax records. Even' time a number 
is changed, the spreadsheet recal- 
culates the entire spreadsheet. 
This program is also integrated to 
work with the word processor. 

The word processor allows the 
user to write letters, reports, stu- 
dent papers and any other text 
without additional software. Com- 
puterized editing makes it easy to 
revise text on the screen before 
printing. Documents can be saved 
on standard floppy diskettes so 
they can be recalled for reprinting 
or updating. The word processor 
is integrated with the spreadsheet 
so calculation sheets from the 
spreadsheet program can be 
moved into the word processor to 
be included in a written report. 

The graphics software is inte- 
grated with the spreadsheet so 
calculations can be visually dis- 
played and evaluated. It also has 
over a dozen new BASIC com- 
mands which make it easy to pro- 
gram high-resolution graphics in 
color and save them on disk or 
tape. It is capable of drawing cir- 
cles, boxes and complex shapes 
and images. 

For example, suppose a letter 
is created on the word processor 
and then calculations are per- 
formed on the spreadsheet. With 
one command, those calculations 
can be mapped into the body of 
the letter anywhere desired. This 
integration also helps when one 
has created a large file of names 
and addresses and wishes to pre- 
pare a mailing. First select and sort 
the data on the file manager, then 
create a letter on the word pro- 
cessor, placing markers where the 
data from the filing system should 
appear. Finally, print out as many 



letters as selected. 

The word processor and 
spreadsheet can also operate 
together in split-screen format. 
Integration allows them both to 
be visible at the same time on sep- 
arate halves of the screen. The 
graphics are designed so you can 
graph a row from the Spreadsheet 
into the Word Processor and have 
it become part of a larger docu- 
ment (with or without other 
mapped-in portions of the spread- 
sheet and filing system ). 

The software built into the 
Plus/4, in short, follows the same 
path as the Lotus 1-2-3, but takes 
only 32K of ROM as opposed to 
the 192K ROM required by Lotus. 



i:bh i-rihhici iNVtNuiRV 



MM ■;ii:-:. : 
KSCRIPMON 



MtQMtCT T-'i- 



E.T.A. / / 



QUAHTtTV 0RBERE9 



The Manager 

The Manager, Commodore's 
own database for the Commodore 
64, can help collect and organize 
information in your home or 
business. In your home, The 
Manager helps organize your 
checkbook, stamp collection, Little 
League team, investments, Christ- 
mas card list or recipes. In your 
business, The Manager can keep 
track of inventory, personnel, 
accounts payable, sales or ac- 
counts receivable. 

It also provides information 
that was previously unavailable 
because manual methods of ob- 
taining the information were 
too time-consuming. It organizes 
data in a consistent format and 
allows you to tailor applications 
to your needs. 

The Manager is an electronic 
filing cabinet, but unlike the files 
in a regular filing cabinet, these 
files can be sorted, reorganized, 
manipulated and scanned at any 



time. Sorting and reorganizing are 
done at computer speed with little 
or no operator intervention. 

Easy Calc 

A spreadsheet is a computerized 
version of an accountant's pad. But 
instead of having a pencil and cal- 
culator to perform calculations, 
you use the computer's keyboard 
and video screen. 

The basic component of a 
spreadsheet is a cell, which is the 
intersection of a row and a col- 
umn. Cells can hold text, numbers 
or formulas. Numbers in a cell can 
be added, subtracted, multiplied 
or divided. A column or row of 
cells can be summed and the 
answer stored in a new cell. 

Uses of a spreadsheet include 
budgets, checkbook, register, loan 
and mortgage calculations, stock 
price tracking, profit and loss 
statements, income tax prepara- 
tion, expense reports and sales 
projections. 

The primary benefits of a 
spreadsheet are its ease of editing, 
its reusability, accuracy of calcula- 
tions and legibility. 

Easy Calc, Commodore's own 
spreadsheet for the 64, is easy to 
use, with versatile editing func- 
tions and several help screens. It 
allows the printing of bar charts 
and individually formatted tables. 
Easy Calc also allows the viewing 
of four pages at once on the screen. 




Easy Finance 

The Has}' Finance series con- 
sists of five separate packages 
covering a wide variety of finan- 
cial areas. Altogether, the Easy 
l-'ii i a nee packages provide over 
70 useful calculations that can be 



40 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



applied to both home and busi- 
ness. They provide the tools which 
allow one to make sound financial 
decisions and plans for future 
expenditures. The Easy Finance 
programs are easy to use. Prompts 
lead the user through each calcu- 
lation in a step-by-step manner. 

Easy Finance / handles loan 
concepts. The 12 loan calculations 
are applicable to many situations, 
whether at home or in business. 
Use this package to determine 
such things as the remaining bal- 
ance on an existing loan, the 
monthly payment on an antici- 
pated loan or your mortgage 
amortization schedule. 

Easy Finance II deals with basic 
investments. There are 16 basic 
investment calculations ranging 
from determining the future value 
of an investment to ascertaining 
the internal rate of return of an 
investment. 

Easy Finance III continues 
basic investments. The 16 ad- 
vanced investment calculations are 
ideal for the business environ- 
ment. I'se this to determine the 
current value of a treasury bill or 
the financial management rate of 
return on the maximum price 
of an acquisition or merger. 

Easy Finance IV deals with 
business management. The 21 
business management calculations 
provide fast, reliable answers u > 
determine, for example, whether 
to lease or purchase an asset, or 
to find out when a depreciation 
switch from declining balance to 
straight line would allow for larger 
depreciation amounts in the later 
years of an asset's lifespan. 

Easy Finance V shows how to 
make the most out of statistics 
such as payoff matrix analysis, re- 
gression analysis forecasting and 
apportionment by ratios. It is 
completely preprogrammed. 

Easy Spell 

Easy Spell for the Commodore 
64 produces flawless writing by 
offering automatic corrections of 
spelling errors. It also counts the 
words in your manuscript. It has a 
built-in 20,000 word-lexicon that 



lets you add words that are not 
already stored there and it is de- 
signed to be used with Easy Script. 
Commodore's word processor for 

the (h. It can be adapted for writ- 
ing reports in specialized fields 
such as medicine, law and science. 



hvaiUtmjB 



Key 
F I 

F8 



Function Ift Additional Tasks 

Soaknarc. One 

Savings Ac ( t 

Checking Accounts 

Rec Dnt i le Cl 

Sayings Atc< 

Checking Account Review 

Account Review 

Tax SuHMary 

Change Of Computer Printer 

Finish 



and aged receivables. It also pro- 
vides printed statements. 

Accounts Payable /Checku ritii ig 
combines tracking of vendor 
payables with an integrated check- 
writing system. It is interfaced 
with other accounting modules. 
The Inventory Management 
program computerizes tracking 
of 1,000 inventory items, stock 
receipts, issues, orders and adjust- 
ments with printed reports. It cal- 
culates use reorders, economic 
order quantities and cost averag- 
ing. It is useful for all types of 
inventories including personal 
collections and insurance lists. 

Payroll is for businesses with 
50 employees or less. It offers 24 
different payroll functions. Payroll 
Silent Butler checks include federal, state and 

The Silent Butler is a home ac- other deductions. It is integrated 
counting product for the Commo- with General Ledger. 
dore 64 which allows you to pay 
bills, accumulate yearly tax sum- 
maries, keep track of birthdays 
and anniversaries and reconcile 
your checkbook in a very simple 
manner. Information for three 
checking and three savings ac- 
counts can be kept for each year. 
A special feature of the Silent 
Butler is the patented Check- 
holder included with your pro- 
gram. Your payments are typed 
right onto your own personal 
checks so there is no need to pur- 
chase special printed checks. Us- 
ing the Silent Butler program, the 
needless duplication of home bill 
paying can be eliminated. 

Accounting Series 

With Commodore's accounting 
series software, your Commodore 
6-i computer can be turned into a 
business computer. 

The General Ledger offers eight 
general ledger options including 
1 500 transactions, 150 charts of 
accounts and posting. Featured is 
integration with other accounting 
modules, custom income statement, 
trial balances and full reports. 

Accounts Receii ■ables/Billing 
includes 11 billing functions, 
150 invoices, "5 customers and 
40 transactions/files. Accounts 
Receivable features billing, credit 

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept/Oct. 1984 




B/Graph 

Commodore's B/Graph. avail- 
able for the Commodore 64 and 
planned for the Plus/4, is a profes- 
sional analysis program. It was de- 
signed to be used by individuals in 
sales, marketing, administration, 
forecasting and general manage- 
ment as well as in home and small 
business applications. Educators, 
students and hobbyists will also 
find B/Graph to be of great use in 
a wide variety of applications. 

B/Graph allows the creation 
of numerous types of graphs and 
charts including line graphs, point 
graphs, area graphs, bar charts, 
segmented bar charts and pie 
charts. You can also save both your 
data and your graphs. 

B/Graph also provides statistical 
and analytical tools for the evalua- 
tion of data c 



41 



S3A0N QIAVQ— bOiVBlSmil 




Easy Script 



Easy 

Commodore's 

own word processor 

for the Commodore 64 

is a unique and powerful 

product. Here's a look 

at Easy Script from a 

beginner's point of view. 



Bv Bonnie Paris 



WPhen I first got my Com- 
modore 64, 1 had never 
used a computer be- 
fore. Everything was 
confusing and I couldn't under- 
stand the basic BASIC book. I 
was a complete novice. It seemed 
like another world until I got 
Eas\> Script. 

Eas) 1 Script is Commodore's 
own word processor for the 
Commodore 64 and is by far the 
easiest for a neophyte to learn. 

Once you boot up the system, 
you are in business. Next you've 
got to tell the system what it is that 
you want to do. 

Let's say you are writing a letter 
that you want to save to show that 
you have written it. OK, here 
we go. 

First we've got to name the 
manuscript or letter that we are 
writing. So we put: 
F3 "Letter to XYZ" (RETURN) 



Don't forget that (RETURN) or 
the computer will tell you about it. 

Second you must cell the com- 
puter where to put the margins for 
your letter, what spacing to use 
and so forth. So let's enter: 
F3 Im20:rm65:pl66:tl55:jul: 
spO(RETURN) 
Now let's examine what we're 
telling the computer to do. 

Im20: You are saying that you 
want your left margin set at 20. 

rm65: That means that you 
want your right margin set at 65. 

pl66: The normal page length 
of printer paper is 66 so that will 
probably remain constant. 

t!55:This tells the computer 
that you want your text to only 
cover 55 lines of the total 66. 

jul: This command asks the 
computer to line up the right side 
as well as the left side. This is 
purely optional since some like 
it one wav and others want it 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



43 



the other. 

spO: That says to leave no 
spaces between lines ... Or you 
might wain this to be spl to have 
one space between lines if it is a 
short letter. 

Now we want to tell the com- 
puter how many lines down from 
the top of the page we want to start 
so we say: 

F3 VP6 (or six lines from the top 
of the page) 

Then you can go on and type 
your letter as you wish. But 
another thing to remember is, un- 
like using a typewriter, you don't 
have to return until you come to 
the end of a paragraph in the body 
of the letter. Without worrying 
about returns, you can type twice 
as fast as you can on a typewriter. 

Now let's say you made a mis- 
take way up at the beginning of the 
letter. Use your cursor keys to take 
you back to the spot (SHIFT to go 
up and non-SHIFT to go down— 
SHIFT to go left and non-SHIFT to 
go right ). Then type over the word 
or, if there isn't enough space, use 
[SI 1 1 FT/INSERT-DELETE] and 
ALAKAZAM! There's a space to type 
in what you want. If there's too 
much space and you want to close 
it up use the INSERT-DELETE 
without the SHIFT Right in here I 
should explain that the computer 
will ask "Insert Line?". You push 
RUN/STOP and it will ask "Reset 
program?". Just push N for no. 

OK so far. So now there's a 
whole line you want to put in or 
take out. Take your cursor up to 
the beginning of the line and hit 
Fl [SHIFT/INSERT-DELETE] and all 
of a sudden there's an extra line to 
type on and you haven't destroyed 
the line either. It's now just a line 
below. Or if you want to close the 
line up, use Fl INSERT-DELETE 
without the SHIFT. Easy isn't it? 

So now you want to see what 
your letter looks like when you 
print it. Push Fl (that takes you out 
of the edit mode), then push O 
(output ) and V (view). 

By using your R-L cursor you 
can move the picture from side to 




side. To move it down to see the 
rest, push the key which has the 
Commodore logo on it. If there is 
more than one page then push C 
and it will continue to the end. 

So now we've written a letter. 
How about heading up a manu- 
script. OK. Here goes. 
F3 "Name of Manuscript" 
(RETURN) 

F3 Iml5:rm70-pl66:u60: 
jul:spl (RETURN) 
F3 vp3 (RETURN) 

We know now what all that 
means but here's something 
different. 

F3 cnl;Fl (SHIFT :)Chapter 
One Fl (SHIFT ;)F3 cnO 
(RETURN) 

Let's examine that. The cnl and 
cnO commands tell the computer 
to center the words Chapter One 
between the margins. The Fl 
(SHIFT :) and the Fl (SHIFT ;) tell 
it to make the letters twice their 
regular size. See, that's not so hard. 

Now we want to tell the com- 
puter that we want a heading 
and page number on each page 
and have the pages numbered 
consecutively. So we give 
this command: 
F3 hd3:Chapter One„Page 
(Fl #)(RETURN) 
F3p#l (RETURN) 

This tells the computer that you 
want "Chapter One" on the left 
side, the page number on the right 
side, the page numbering to start 
with page one and you want it 
three spaces from the top of the 
script. (Notice the use of two 
commas in the listing.) 

Now suppose you want only 
a page number centered at the 
bottom of the page. OK, tell the 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept/Oct 1984 



computer this instead: 


save it on disk. First we have to 


F3 ft3:,-(Fl#) -, (RETURN) 


format the disk so it will accept 


This tells the computer that on 


the content we want to store so 


the bottom of each page you want 


we do this: 


the page number in the middle 


F4 nO:NAME OF BOOK,01 


(don't forget those commas) with 


(RETURN) 


a dash on each side. One thing to 


This puts the computer in the 


remember. . . if you want the page 


disk mode and tells it that this is 


number on the last page of the 


a new disk, what the name is and 


document, you'd better put the 


also that this is the first disk (01 ). It 


command at the bottom as well as 


will then ask "Are You Sure?" and 


at the top. 


you can push "Y" for yes. It will 


Now we want to be sure that the 


then format the disk. You can take 


last page will come out looking 


a few minutes to format it and then 


like the rest of the pages so we use 


you return to the edit mode by 


this command: 


pushing RUN/STOP and then give 


F3 *jpO (RETURN) 


this command: 


That tells the Commodore 64 


F1F( for file) 


that you want it to go completely 


It then asks for the name of the 


to the end of the first page regard- 


file so to save time vou simply put: 


less of where the printing stopped. 


F2 (RETURN) 


Now let's say that you want to 


"Chapter One" jumps out. Don't 


link this to "Chapter Two" so that 


forget to press RETURN. Here is a 


printing will be easier. Here is the 


good place to say that if you have a 


command that comes at the end of 


tab in your text, better put a + sign 


the first chapter: 


in the title ... so it looks like this 


F3 ik:Chapter Two(RETURN) 


(remember it's got to be only 16 


Now Let's say that you want to 


characters too): 


indent a quotation or other matter. 


File name:Chapter One + 


You have already specified that 


Now that we have it filed, we 


you want the document double 


will want to print it. First make 


spaced (spl, remember?) and left 


sure the printer is stationed at the 


margin at 15 (lml5) and right 


top or the paper and then give 


margin at 70 (rm70). You want 


this command: 


lc\ iiTH^nr tliic /~i\ if^t*it\/~\t~i 'inrl 


Fl O (output) P (print) 


l\J UlUCllL Llll?> ULKJLd.LJ(J[ 1 tlllLl 


make it single spaced. Here's 


Say that after you read it, you 


the command: 


remember something that you 


F3 Im20:rm65:sp0 


forgot to mention and you want to 


(RETURN). (Don't forget to put it 


change a few things. Just load it 


back to the original spacing by the 


(Fl L), then put in the name of the 


command of F3 Iml5:rm70:spl 


document and RETURN.Go ahead 


(RETURN) 


and edit it like you did before. 


Now that does the trick. But if 


Another good thing to know is 


you want to leave blank lines to set 


that if you get in a position that 


it off, remember to put a RETURN 


you don't know how to get out of 


in that space, 


just push RUN/STOP RESTORE. It 


If you want to use tabs for your 


puts you back to the beginning 


document then use the command: 


but it won't ruin the text that you 


Fl T H (Horizontal) or V 


already have in the computer. 


(Vertical) 


There are a lot more things that 


"OK" you say, "but how do I use 


you can do with Easy Script but 


those tabs?" Good question. To 


this should put you on the right 


activate the tabs, use the f7 kev 


track and help you understand the 


(straight for horizontal and shifted 


manual better. Don't give up here. 


for vertical). 


I learn something from it every 


So now we're finished with 


day that 1 use it. It's easy with 


"Chapter One" and we want to 


Easy Script. c 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sepl./Oct 19B4 45 



four Word 
Proc essors for the 

Cbmnnodoreg4 



Word processors for the Commodore 64 are in 
great demand. Here we look at four popular pack- 
ages to help you make a decision. 

By William I,. Simon, i>h.n. 



The problem in selecting a 
word processing package is 
somewhat iike the problem in 
buying a horse: you first have to 
have some clear answers in your 
own mind about what you want to 
do with it. Some WP packages are 
great for the long haul, bm are a 
handful when you just want to do 
a memo or one-page letter. Some, 
like an "honest" horse, provide 
"what you see is what y< >u get." 

I f you're not already clear on 
what your needs are ( and hardly 
anyone is clear), the comments on 
the word processing packages re- 
viewed here should help you gain 
an awareness of some of the items 
that should be on your personal 
checkoff list in making a word 
processing selection. 

The reviews here are intended 
for users with a Commodore 64 
or other Commodore systems 
( where specified ), one < >r tw< > disk 
drives and a printer. 

In case you're not already famil- 
iar with the sometimes rnvsteri* >us 



vocabulary of word processing, 
let's take a moment to explain a 
few terms. "Block functions" give 
yon the capability of designating 
a section ("block" ) of text — from 
a few letters to a sentence, para- 
graph or more — to be moved 
to or copied at a different place 
in the document or deleted. A 
"header" is one or more lines that 
will appear at the top ol every 
page of the text without your ha\ - 
ing to re-enter them each time: a 
"footer" is the same at the bottom 
of the page. 

Except where noted, all the 
products reviewed here offer the 
basic capabilities common to all 
"full-featured' word processing 
packages. These include block 
functions (move, copy, delete). 
search and replace, headers/ 
footers and automatic page 
numbering. 

Our first package, unlike any of 
the < ithers, is designed for use at 
home rather than in the office: 
Product Name-.Bajik Street 



Writer 

Computer: Commodore 
Authors: Messers. Blum, C 
1 Hiblin, Harrington and Nib' h i 
with franklin E. Smith, an 
design team of the Bank Street 
College 0J Education; manual 
by Robert C'rula, Groton School 
Manufacturer: Broderhund 
Software 
Medium: Disk 
Price: $69:95 

Where to buy: Write the manu- 
facturer at 17'Ea'ul Drive.San 
Rafael, CA 94903 to obtain the 
name ol a dealer near you. 

The cover art on the package 
shows a pair of beaming parents 
looking ^\) as a little girl types at 
the keyboard— which is. an accu- 
rate portrayal of the use that Bank 
Street \\ tiler was designed for. 
Your kids will find it powerful, 
convenient and easy-to-use, and 
any youngster who learns to type 
well enough to do homework as- 
signments on the computer will 
be pleased by the convenience ol 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



47 



correcting mistakes, centering 
tides and so forth. 

The software has been designed 
to make it easy for the learner and 
the user. For example, the loading 
instructions are reproduced on the 
label of the disk— so you don't have 
to go thumbing through the man- 
ual, trying to find the right page. 
And the disk contains a tutorial to 
help children learn how to use 
the variety of commands available. 

I was only able to get upper- 
case printout, although Broder- 
buncl assured me that the system 
does provide the usual upper and 
lower case; they seemed mystified 
that I couldn't get any small letters. 

Bank Street offers a number 
of features in common with the 
larger packages (headers and 
footers, for example) and one that 
many major packages don't even 
have ("unerase," for recovering a 
line you've deleted in error and 
similar catastrophes ). But some 
elements of the design make the 
svstem awkward to use. For ex- 
ample, if you notice a typo earlier 
in the line you're on, you can 
only get back to correct it by eras- 
ing all the text in between. And if 
you want to move the cursor 
around the screen, you have to 
leave Write mode and call up the 
Edit mode. 

The user's manual is well or- 
ganized and clearly written. It 
includes a quite brief but useful 
index which is combined with 
a glossary. 

e: Cut and Paste 
iomputer: Commodore 64 
Authors: Messers. Mott, Hayes, 
Lane, Maynard, Morrison, Shaw 
and Silva; manual by David Grady 
r; Electronic Arts 
ill: Disk 
Price: $50.00 

Where to buy: Write the manu- 
facturer for the name of the 
nearest dealer: 2755 Campus 
Drive, San Mateo, CA 94403 

You know that Cut and Paste 
has taken a fresh approach to the 
problem of word processing from 
the moment you see the package, 
which is not a box but a unique, 
flat triptych design with clever, 



whimsical art and a sense of style. 
And as the package copy quickly 
makes clear, die software has been 
designed by people who have a 
well-developed philosophy about 
the subject, based on throwing out 
ideas left over from the typewriter 
and using the programmer's ap- 
proach to text manipulation. 

As just one example of what this 
means, you won't find a global 
search-and-replace function; too 
often, the C&P designers maintain, 
you decided to replace "fun" with 
"joy" throughout the text . . . and 
unknowingly ended up with the 
word "joydamental" or the like. 
(See why?) 

On the other hand, Cut and 
Paste has been laid out so that it is 
easy to learn and easy to use, with 
commands designed so you can 
remember them readily. And a 
table of contents item titled "Tak- 
ing Care of Poor Widows and Or- 
phans" leads you to discover that 
the system automatically prevents 
the situation in which (for ex- 
ample) a section heading appears 
at the bottom of a page, separated 
from the text that follows it be- 
cause the page-end happened to 
fall just at that point. 

The software provides three 
printing formats — one for 8-1/2" 
x 11" paper, one for business 
envelopes and a third that you 
specify yourself. 

The manual, a visual delight 
because it's so well designed, 
contains some gentle humor to 
ease the burden of learning and 
a "Command Summary Card" pro- 
vides quick reference to the func- 
tion commands which are mostly 
based on the use of the control 
key plus an appropriate alphabet 
letter ( "C" for Cut, etc.). Unfortu- 
nately, no use is made of the 
Commodore function keys. 

No printer configuration rou- 
tine is required. That's because no 
special functions are supported. 
Translation: you can't do italics, 
underlining, boldface, etc., even 
if your printer is capable of it. 

All in all, Cut and Paste is a 
pleasant program to use. If you 
can live with its limitations, it's 



a product well worth your 
consideration. 

Paperclip is one of the biggest 
sellers and one of the most power- 
ful of packages for doing word 
processing on the Commodore 64 
and other Commodore comput- 
ers. If you have demanding word 
processing requirements (for 
business use, for a professional 
writer or for any other heavy-duty 
requirement), this is one program 
you should certainly consider. 

80- Column Word Processing 

Over the years I've evolved a 
very strong personal preference 
(prejudice?) about word process- 
ing and it's this: the ideal word 
processing package should be no 
more cumbersome to use than a 
typewriter and should let you see 
on screen exactly what you will get 
when you print out —a feature re- 
ferred to as "what you see is what 
you get." 

That's of course a problem on 
the Commodore 64, unless you're 
typing only memos on narrow 
paper. The 40-column format can't 
very well reveal how 80 columns 
of printout will look on die page. 

The answer is to opt for an 80- 
column word processing package. 
For virtually any office or personal 
application where the word pro- 
cessing will be used much of the 
working day— as in my case — I 
consider 80-column software to 
be a great trouble-saver and all 
but a necessity. 

One way to achieve this is by 
purchasing an 80-coiumn board 
(ask your Commodore dealer) 
and Paperclip , a word processor 
from Batteries Included that was 
reviewed last issue — which is de- 
signed to support this approach. 
CAUTION: You should insist that 
your dealer demonstrate that 
the board and software are com- 
patible before plunking down 
your money. 

In addition, here are two of 
the other 80-coiumn alternatives. 
Product Name.- Word Manager 
Computer: Commodore 64 

r: Donald K. Nakano 
Manufacturer: Data 20 



48 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 




Medium: Disk or cassette 

^ce: $179.95 (includes 80- 
column board, spreadsheet and 
mailing list) 

here to buy: Can be purchased 
from Commodore dealers; or con- 
tact the manufacturer for the name 
of a local outlet: 23011 Moulton 
Parkway, #B-10, Laguna Hills, CA 
92653. 

This package is one that makes 
us want to stand up and cheer. 
Even' other word processing 
package for the Commodore 64 
we 'tie ever seen requires you to 
memorize control codes l< >r each 
action. Even the common things 
like centering, underlining or 
defining block markers have to 
be done with codes from a long 
list — and often with absolutely no 
connection between the function 
and the code that would help you 
remember (e.g., "Control"' for 
turning on underlining ). 

Word Manager solves thai by 
using the top row of keys for com- 
manding these functions and pro- 
vides you a card that sits neaiK 
on the keyboard jusi above this 
row—so you can locate the cor- 
rect key in an instant. Why every 
other manufacturer ignores such a 
simple and pleasing scheme is be- 
yond reason. I get the impression 
that most software designers have 
never taken die trouble to con- 
sider what the user might want, or 
even (heaven forbid!) to ask some 
ordinary, typical users what their 
preferences are. 

So the good news about Word 
Manager is convenience. The bad 
news is that, for the moment, the 
program will noi do headers and 
footers, does not provide justifica- 
tion, has only limited blockmove 
capability and is limited to a maxi- 
mum of five pages per document. 

But even here there's good 
news ahead. The manufacturer ad- 
vises us that an update was due out 
last summer which added more 
powerful printer configuring. 
headers/footers and justification. 
It also included a text-linking pro- 
cedure so that documents longer 
than five pages can be entered in 
separate files but strung together 



for printing. 

As noted above, the price in- 
cludes the required 80-column 
board, a spreadsheet program 
and a mailing list program. Pur- 
chasers of the current software 
will be given the opportunity of 
moving up to the new program 
for a nominal fee. 

finally, a product so unusual 
and special that it belongs in a 
separate category: 

Super-Text 
Commodore 64 with 
154] disk drive 
Author: (No credit given) 
Manufactur er: Muse Software 

: Disk 
Price: $99.00 

uy: For the name of a 
local dealer, contact the company 
.n 347 N. Charels Street, Baltimore, 
MD 21201. 

What's so special? Just this— 
Super-Text is an 80-column soft- 
ware package that does not re- 
quire any extra hardware! It 
achieves the 80-column display 
through the software so that you 
do not have to buy an 80-col- 
umn board. 

There's more than just the 
hardware cost involved here. 
I sing an 80-column board for 
your word processing can prove 
si imething of a nuisance, since you 
may find that you have to remove 
the board even - time you want to 
work on a spreadsheet, play a 
game or use some other type of 
pn gram, then replace the board 
when you want to go back to word 
processing, Super-Text saves you 
the trouble. 

The manufacturer recommends 
that you use a high-definition 
monitor with this software; other- 
wise you may find the characters 
hard to read. However, you're 
given the choice of operating in 
either 40- or 80-character mode 
and can shift back and forth at will, 
so you have the option of entering 
text in the larger and clearer 40- 
character setup, then going into 80 
to check the layout on the page. 

Configuration files are included 
( >n disk for the VIC-1525 and 
Epson, NEC and Okidata printers. 



Apologies: we did not have suf- 
ficient time to put this package 
through its paces very extensively. 
The following are for the most 
pan gleaned from the manual. 

It's apparently necessary to exit 
from the text-writing mode into 
a different mode if you want to 
move the cursor to a different pan 
of the document (for example, to 
correct an error in an earlier para- 
graph). As 1 mentioned earlier, 1 
consider that an inconvenience 
and annoyance. Also, there ap- 
pears to be no capability of doing 
mail-merge or column operations, 
And the routine for setting mar- 
gins and tabs is clumsy. 

Although the package could 
have been designed to show you 
only what will print out — letting 
the screen be as clean as a sheet < tl 
typing paper— die design instead 
loads the screen with control 
symbols . . . which some users like 
and others (including me) abhor. 

Unique among any of the other 
packages reviewed here, Super- 
Text provides an extremely handy 
split-screen feature that allows you 
to display two different parts of a 
file on screen at the same time. 

If you're looking for a powerful 
word processor and share my 
\ tew that the 80-column route is 
the only way to go, I'd recom- 
mend that you take a good look 
at Super-Text before making a de- 
cision. It's shortcomings may put 
you off... but on the other hand, 
it's advantages may have you 
cheering. C 






William L Simon has been a full-time 
freelance writer for 25 years. He has mit- 
ten over 500 dociinientantuid business 
films and has also worked extensively on 
writing projects in the computer field, lie 
holds a degree in electrical engineering 
and educational psychology and his 
doctorate is in communications. 




COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



49 



Database programs store information (data) that can be selectively 

rearranged to generate answers, lists or reports. There are both 

general and specific database packages (such as for farm, medical, 

dental or law offices) on the market, along with mail lists, 

stock portfolio managers and reference aids. 



What Databases Do 

Data managers are electronic fil- 
ing cabinets. Typically, they hold 
as much information as a 3" x 5" 
card box. Also typically, the infor- 
mation is divided into chunks 
about the size of one 3" x 5" card. 
The whole card box may be 
thought of as a file (the com- 
puter term for a full set of 
related information). 

For instance, think of your 
Christmas card list as your file. 
Within the file, each cards-worth 
of information is called a record. 
It represents all available informa- 
tion about just one member of the 
set. That would be each different 
family in your Christmas card list. 
A subdivision of a record, called a 
field, holds one item of informa- 
tion about that one member of 



By Jim Strasma 

Editor, Midnite Software Gazette 



the set, such as a person's zip 
code, the names of each child in 
the family or die last year you sent 
the family a Christmas card. Thus, 
each record is made up of one or 
more fields and each file is made 
up of one or more records, 

What to Look for 
in a Database 

The very best data managers 
now offered are called relational 
data managers because they can 
relate (handle several files at 
once) — as if you had several card 
boxes and could pull information 
from each as needed. Very few of 
the data managers currently avail- 
able are able to juggle more than 
one file at a time. 



Another important feature of 
the best data managers is that their 
field and record sizes are almost 
unlimited. Ordinary data manag- 
ers have a field size limit of under 
80 characters because that is the 
most data that can be typed into 
the computer's keyboard to an- 
swer the question asked by one 
BASIC statement. For example, in 
most database programs you can't 
type in a street address longer 
than 80 characters as one field. 
If you need more (like Office of 
Admissions, Rm. 12, School of 
Arts and Sciences, University of 
California at Berkeley), then you 
must break it down into two or 
three smaller fields. Ordinary data 
managers also limit each record 
(the total information for one 
entry on a Christmas list) to under 

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 51 



254 characters (the maximum size 
of one relative record on a CBM 
diskette). For many uses these 
limits are adequate, but it's nice 
to be able to go beyond them 
if necessary. 

A third advantage of the best 
data managers is the ability to 
maintain multiple prime keys, In a 
card file box, each card is filed in a 
certain order — in a Christmas list, 
it might be alphabetically by last 
name. If you later decide to keep 
the list in order by zip code in- 
stead, you'll have to sort it all over 
again. Most data managers can do 
this on request but some of the 
best ones don't need to. Instead, 
they simultaneously maintain the 
list in several orders at once, al- 
lowing you to instantly look at the 
cards in any order you like. This 
is especially important when you 
would otherwise need to sort the 
file often, as in a mailing list. How- 
ever, juggling the information in 
several ways ai once docs take 
time, so programs that allow for 
it usually take longer to add 
or delete a record than sim- 
pler programs. 

Still another characteristic that 
often separates better from lesser 
data managers is their file type. 
All Commodore computers are 
equipped to handle all file types. 
Any limitation is in the storage de- 
vice used— a cassette drive or disk 
drive, for instance. The simplest 
data handlers use sequential files. 
Usually this means all their infor- 
mation is in memory at once. In 
one respect this is good, because 
they can manipulate information 
very quickly, without waiting for a 
disk drive to find and load it one 
piece at a time. 

Those using a cassette drive 
must use this type of data manager 
since cassettes use only sequential 
files. However, sequential-file data 
managers hold less information 
than other types, because they 
hold only as much data as can be 
stored in the computer at one 
time. For simple mail lists of 
under 100 names, a sequential- 
file database is probably adequate. 
For anything larger, however, 

52 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 



you will eventually have to use a 
disk drive— or preferably two 

disk drives — and a random or 
relative-file database, which I will 
discuss shortly. 

Just for your information, se- 
quential files are also used as an 
option on several of the best data 
managers/word processor com- 
binations to pass information be- 
tween themselves. In these cases, 
the sequential files are not a pri- 
mary way of storing information, 
but a way of making the program 
vastly more flexible. In the reviews 
that follow, several data managers 
are noted as working with particu- 
lar word processors, for example. 
Those databases noted as working 
with PaperClip, Easy Script, Super 
Script or Word Pro word pro- 
cessors are also compatible with 
the others, as well as with any 
other program able to read 
sequential files. 

Many companies now use 
direct-access files, often called 
random files. Random files allow a 
data manager to fill an entire disk- 
ette with a single file of informa- 
tion and look at any record (or 
more precisely, any track and sec- 
tor) within the file at any time. 
However, they are difficult to use 
well and vulnerable to hardware 
problems. A common disk com- 
mand used to overcome such 
problems (validate) effectively 
erases random files from the disk- 
etie's map of used space. I am 
reluctant to recommend using 
random files, but must admit that 
some of the best programs do 
so with good results. 

Relative files are similar to ran- 
dom files but are easier to use 
properly, at the cost of a bit of 
speed and flexibility. They make 
each record within a file (one 
family's "index card" within the 
Christmas list) the same size — 
usually 254 characters long. How- 
ever, within that established length 
each piece of information (field), 
like street address or number of 
children, can be a different length 
from record to record. 

You can easily search for a 
specific record (family name) 

SGpt./Oct. 1984 



much faster using relative records 
than using sequential records. 
They are often more reliable than 
direct-access files and always 
easier to access from other pro- 
grams (something you will even- 
tually want to do). 

The next feature to look for in a 
data handler is how it sets up files. 
The simplest and best way to set 
up files is with a full-screen forms 
editor. With one of these, you sim- 
ply draw a picture of where you 
want information placed on the 
screen. Less flexible systems make 
you set names and lengths of fields 
without seeing how they look as 
you do it and worst of all, ex- 
pect you to say in advance how 
many fields you will need and 
don't allow you to change your 
mind later. 

Perhaps the most important fea- 
ture in a data manager over the 
long haul is its ability to restruc- 
ture a file. No matter how carefully 
you design a file, you will eventu- 
ally wish to add, delete, move or 
change a field in some way. The 
best systems make this simple to 
do; most don't allow for it at all. 

There are other useful features 
io look lor Speedy sorting and 
searching by various fields is one 
(as when you change an alphabet- 
ical Christmas card list into zip 
code order before actually print- 
ing the cards; or when you find 
everyone in the list that neither 
sent nor received a card last year). 
Flexible report formats that can 
print your information in any 
order and shape is another (best 
for this would be a built-in word 
processor; next best is the ability 
to send information to a separate 
word processor, although that 
takes enough time that built-in re- 
port and label abilities may be pre- 
ferred). If you will need financial 
information from your files, math 
capabilities are a helpful part of 
most data managers. Also note that 
some data managers cannot even 
handle lower case letters and 
commas. Avoid them. 

One other great blessing is 
programmability— the ability to 
automate commonlv used se- 



quences of commands. One way 
to do this is within the program. 
Another is by modifying a BASIC 
portion of the program as needed. 
Programs which prevent such 
changes tend to be less useful than 
others over the long run. How- 
ever, programs written entirely in 
BASIC tend to be too slow for a 
data manager. (Remember — any 
data handler looks fast with only a 
couple of records. Before buying a 
data manager, test it with several 
hundred records.) 

Less important are such features 
as passwords (often ineffective 
against capable programmers and 
unnecessary if you lock up sensi- 
tive information in a safe) and the 
ability to link several diskettes 
into a single file (such files are 
almost impossible to sort and 
often unreliable). 

No one program has all the de- 
sirable features. A few, however, 
come close. Most are also quite af- 
fordable. Pay special attention to 
required equipment and compati- 
bility with other programs you use 
(especially with your word pro- 
cessor). Surely one is right for you. 

With all that in mind, the follow- 
ing pages contain updated reviews 
of some of the best data manager 
and mail list programs reviewed 
during the past four years in the 
The Midnite Software Gazette, an 
independent magazine specializ- 
ing in reviews of products for 
Commodore's computers, They 
address various needs, but each is, 
in some way, excellent. Naturally, 
these are not all the programs the 
Midnite has reviewed. To cover all 
of them would take several more 
pages. Instead, those still widely 
available are listed after the other 
reviews, with a brief note as to 
why they were not reviewed in 
full. For details on the products 
reviewed in depth, refer to the 
chart on the next page. 

Administrator II 

According to our reviewer, who 
has used it for over two years, The 
Administrator is an excellent pack- 
age. Though not a fully relational 
database like Superbase and 



Silicon Office, it does as well or 
better for many common busi- 
ness purposes by relating two 
preset files — master records and 
transactions (ideal for a client 
who is automating customer ser- 
vice records). 

Its features are much like those 
of other good database packages: 
a prime key, multilevel sorting, 
math calculations, searching and 
creating indexes, some reports 
(including mail labels and many 
kinds of subtotals) and the ability 
to store complex command re- 
quests for reuse (especially on 
the advanced hard disk version). 
Though it lacks the built-in word 
processor of Silicon Office, it can 
send sequential data to various 
word processors. Current versions 
allow simple formatting of print- 
outs up to 132 columns wide and 
make restructuring fairly simple, 
along with editing and batch- 
processing transactions. 

For me, the ultimate test is that 
the first time I saw the package, I 
was able to start and run it, create 
an application and do a sample 
printout for a client, without more 
than momentary references to the 
manual. Screen messages dis- 
played nearly everything needed 
and the manual itself is a good, 
quick reference. In brief use, I 
found it to be a fine package. 

The Consultant 

When it first appeared, The 
Consultant (formerly Delphi's 
Oracle) destroyed two database 
limitations: it allowed more than 
254 characters in a record and the 
entire program loaded into mem- 
ory at once. This means you need 
the disk only to store your files 
and indexes! 

This is a single-file data manager 
of extreme power. Though it lacks 
some of the options of the most 
expensive data managers, it also 
avoids their complexity-. The Con- 
sultant combines simplicity with 
speed and gigantic records. Its re- 
cords can also be kept sorted in 
several different ways at once. This 
means you can look up names in 
alphabetical order and then im- 



mediately switch to printing out 
mailing labels in zip code order. 
(You can even request a list that is 
alphabetical by name within each 
zip code.) Because maintaining 
this order is complicated, do limit 
the number of sorts — with eight 
going at once in a large file, add- 
ing a name takes several minutes. 

The Consultant provides easy 
mail labels and complex but 
completely flexible reports, two 
chores flunked by many data man- 
agers. If you need still more flexi- 
bility, Consultant information can 
be conveniently sent to most word 
processors. It also recognizes that 
needs change and makes it easy to 
change the structure of a file, re- 
vise the appearance of a form or 
convert from another data man- 
ager without typing everything in 
again. If you need to do calcula- 
tions, current versions offer lim- 
ited math (add, subtract, multiply 
and divide) but with only one in- 
termediate variable. It even offers 
optional multilevel passwords to 
provide a bit of protection from 
prying eyes. 

The Consultant is blessed with 
an excellent and well bound man- 
ual. There is also enough help 
within the program that skilled 
users will get by with only brief 
glances at it. New users should 
plan on three four-hour sessions. 
The program itself is menu-driven 
and virtually impossible to crash, 
but lacks any HELP screens. 

The only serious problem we 
encountered is that after entering 
about 1,500 records, we ran out 
of room to hold all of the keys in 
memory at once and had to use 
the included Supersort option to 
order them thereafter. This is a 
bit of a pain. But unless you have 
huge numbers of records you 
won't encounter it. 

Unless your information needs 
are truly unusual, The Consultant 
can handle them. Recommended. 

PractifUe 

At first glance, PractifUe (for- 
merly Flex-File) is just another 
mostly BASIC file manager. It lacks 
many desirable features and its 

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 53 



speed has been variously de- 
scribed by our reviewers as blind- 
ingly fast and far too slow. Even so, 
Practifile is an important database. 
The reason is expressed in its 
former name — its great flexibility. 
To that we would add "durability"; 
it was, years ago, the first reliable 
database sold for Commodore 
computers. 

This versatile database is among 
the very few to successfully use 
random files. The author chose 



them in order to provide fast ac- 
cess to information on any part 
of any Commodore disk drive. 
Practifile also allows you to alter 
the shape of its records or even 
the program itself. Tips for adding 
your own routines to Practifile are 
included in the easy-to-follow 
spiral-bound manual. For instance, 
if you shorten the number of char- 
acters in each record (name) to 
less than 127, Practifile can hold 
up to 1000 names on a 4040 or 



1541 disk. The report writer is 
fairly usable but no better than 
the best competitors'. The same 
is true of the sorting and search- 
ing options. 

One recent review reports 
Practifile was never meant for a 
single drive, especially not one as 
slow as a 1541. It usually takes a 
minimum of six swaps to do any- 
thing and has twice so far tried to 
load something called "Disk File" 
which is not in the directory. It 



Title 


Publisher 


Compute 


Drive 


Printer 


File 
Type 


Related 
Files 


Prime 
Keys 


Field 
Size 

(characters) 


Fields 


Record 

Size 
(characters 


Records 


Screens Works 
Per Record With 


Remarks 


Administrator 


Professional Sotiwrp 
51 f remonl St 
Needtnm. MA 02194 
617-444-5224 


" 


8050 
or larger 


CBM 
ASCII 


Random 




I 


■ 


60 


508 


9000 




',V -ill i 


■ tno file database 

• compiled OTL BASK 

■ cassette port dongte 


Tw Ccnsunani 


BSSerics Included 

71 McCaul SI. 
Toronto ONr Canada 
MST2XI 
416-596-1405 


CBM 
PET 
64 


CBM 


CBM 
ASCII 


Relative 


1 


99 


1755 


99 


12500 
on 64 
9000 
on PET 
CBM 


Limited 
only by 

OKI 

sue 


9 


P3perClip 


• database 

• machine language 
■ 64 dongte in joy 

aortl 
•PET.'CBMROMat 
19000 








Pradftile 


Computer Software Ass 
440aka 
Newton upper Fills. 

MA 0216-1 
617-527-7510 


Ail Models CSM 
(24K added 
memory on VIC) 


CBM 
ASCII 
(optional) 


Random 


i 


1 


79 


20 


254 


10Q0 rail- 
size on 1541 
2800 on 
8050 


1 


I'.:;: rau 
WordPro 


•database 

• BASIC machine 

language 

• cassette port dongle 


The Mail D«k 


Midmii! Software 
1238 Richland Ave 
Liner*). IL 62656 
217-732-2703 


CSM 
PET 
64 


CBM 






t 


) 


32 


10 


150 


1080 




PaperClip 

Easy Script 


-mail list 

• BASIC & machine 

language 
•unprotected 


CBM 
ASCII 


3 lain 


'.' BIN ■ 


Cardec 

313 Mattewson 

•5 67214 
316-267-6525 


64 


1541 


Serial Bus 


Rjndofi 






120 


8 


254 


600 


1 


Write How 


■ ma i Bsl 

• FORTH 

• DOS protected 




Commodore 
1200 Wilson Drive 
West Chester. PA 19380 
9100 


CBM 

64 


CBM dual 
1541 


CBM 


Relative 


i 


16 


40 on 
64 

80 on 
CBM 


250 


1500 on 

64 
252 on 
CBU 


2000 small 

on 1541 

4000 on 

6250 


20 on 64 
2 on CBM 


Easy Script 
Super Script 


• database 
•BASICS machine 
language 

•DOS protected 
■ cassette port 
dongle on CSM 


Mail Pro 64 


Pro-bne Software 
755 Queensway E Unit 8 
Mississauqa. 0N1 Cnnad. 
L4Y4C5 
416-273-6350 


64 




CBM 
ASCII 


Malta 


i 


20 


. 99 


20 


254 


4000 small 
on 1541 


1 


WordPro 


• nail list 

• JTBcriine language 
■DOS prowled 

• backup available 


MDM Database 
Uanagn 


Mirage Concepts 
2519 W.Shaw #106 
Fresno. CA 93711 
209-227-8369 


64 


1541 
2031 


Serial Bus 
(optional] 


Selanve 


1 


1 


250 


200 


2000 


65535 


2-way 
scroling 


M;raiK 

Professional 

Word 

Processor 


■ database 

■ machine ongui y 

• DOS protected 

• backup available 


Silicon Office 


Compute! Marketing 

Service 
26 SpriTtgdate Rd 

Cherry Hill. NJ 1012B 
609-424-5055 


CBM 6096 


8050 
8250 
D9060 

D9090 
(optional) 


CBM 
ASCII 
(optional) 


FteHOva 


6 


1 


76 


200 


254 


limited 
only by 
disk size 


1 


contained 


• integrated system 

• machine language 
•DOS protected 

• backup included 


Superoasc 


Precision Software 
820 2ml Ave Suit 
NewYoik. NY 19017 
212-490-1825 


B-128 
CBM 8096 

64 


1541 
8050 


CBM 
ASCII 
(optional) 


Random 


15 


1 


255 


12? 


1108 


limned 
only by 
disk size 


4 


Easy Script 
Super Script 


• regional data 

manager 

• machine language 

• DOS protected 

• backup included 


Super ONice 


Precision Software 
820 2nd Ave Suite I10O 
New York. N* 10017 
212-490-1825 


B-ce 

CBM 8096 


3050 


CBM 

ASCII 
(optional) 


Random 


B 


1 


255 


127 


1108 


limited 
only by 
disk size 




scll- 
contamed 


• asgraled system 
- machine language 
•DOS protected 

• backup included 




TOIL Label 
2 1 (VIC) 

Label 
26 


T0TL Software 
P0. Box 471? 
Walnut Creek. CA 94596 


64 

(I6K added 
memory) 


Oatassclle 

CBM 
(optional) 


CBM 
RS232 

(optional) 


Sequential 


t 


1 


30 


4 


253 


200 
on 
64 


1 


TOR. 
Te«l 


•mail list 
• BASIC & machine 

language 
• unprotected 





54 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sepi./Oct. 1984 



keeps on returning "File Not 
Fount!" messages. If you try STOP, 
you can't start again because of 
"File Not Opened" messages. 

Still, as the only database that 
works unchanged on even 7 Com- 
modore machine from the VIC to 
the 8096, Praaifile is a valuable 
program. It is also, without a 
doubt, the best data manager 
available for the VIC. Many user 
groups use it for their important 
records and find it quite satisfac- 
tory. Though it isn't state of the art, 
there is a lot to be said for a pro- 
gram that works well every time, 
and with recent price cuts, it is a 
bargain again. Its fans consider 
it worth its weight in gold. 
Recommended, especially for 
VIC owners. 

The Mail Disk 

In this "shareware" mail list for 
all Commodore computers, you 
can store, edit and print up to 
1000 records of mailing and other 
information per diskette. Each 
record holds the standard infor- 
mation found on any mail list 
program: name, (name of busi- 
ness or institution), street address, 
city, state and zip. It also adds two 
phone numbers and up to 32 dif- 
ferent categories in which to store 
special database information. 

The Mail Disk has many nice 
features. For instance, one may 
code each record according to 
categories and later print only the 
records that match the chosen 
categories. There are many print- 
ing options such as index cards 
or one-, two- or three-wide mail 
labels, printing in alphabetical or 
zip code order and printing any- 
thing from short mail information 
to a full record. The diskette is full 
of instructions and documentation 
of the program principles, espe- 
cially of relative records. 

Unfortunately, The Mail Disk is 
a little slow accessing more than a 
couple of hundred records. You 
may also occasionally fall out of 
the program (but it is easy to 
get back in). Sometimes strange 
records occur which cannot 
be deleted. 



The Mail Disk is a very powerful, 
flexible and convenient package. 
A real bargain. (Reviewed by 
Brent Anderson.) 

Mail Now 

Should meet the requirements 
of anyone who needs a simple 
address program. Provides a two- 
character data entry for "Category" 
and a 14- character "Remark" entry. 
The various functions are quite 
adequate and easy to follow. Orig- 
inal label formats are available in 
an excellent print section, which 
has more options than you may 
need. The writers may want to 
modify the "Delete" function to 
avoid deleting addresses pre- 
maturely or accidentally. Even 
with the preliminary manual, the 
screened instructions would make 
it possible to use this program 
with a little experimentation. 
Our reviewer gave this program 
good marks. 

The Manager 

This file manager has been 
popular on the CBM for three 
years and is a good package. For 
users who need only one file at a 
time, it is also a bargain, especially 
for 64 owners. 

Advantages: Uses standard rela- 
tive files, with nearly every desir- 
able convenience for working 
with them included — sorts, 
searches, reports, screen dumps, 
dumps to word processors, etc. 
Has Commodore-recommended 
screen formatting, allowing you to 
easily design file formats. Includes 
somewhat programmable arith- 
metic functions. Display variables 
are recalculated each time the rec- 
ord appears, to conserve diskette 
space. Its other key advantage is 
its user-accessible BASIC and ma- 
chine language code which allows 
the user to make custom changes. 

Shortcomings: Commodore 
suggests users and dealers de- 
velop custom applications. Unfor- 
tunately, none of the SYS calls and 
parameters are documented. Our 
reviewer of the 64 version called 
the manual "the worst collection of 
gibberish I've ever encountered", 



but later praised added documen- 
tation sent him by Commodore, 
"The Manager is a very capable 
program indeed: fully docu- 
mented, it might even be fun 
to use." 

Other lacks include anyway to 
restructure a file of more than 20 
fields, prevent duplicate records 
or find newly entered data without 
time-consuming key updates. 

Despite such minor troubles, 
we keep a 4,000-name mail list on 
the CBM version at Lincoln Col- 
lege (where I teach) and have had 
no trouble with it at all — making 
The Manage)- the only program 
we've used without a hitch on files 
of this size. Recommended. 

MailPro 

Due to its batch entry ability 
and being in memory all at once, 
MailPro makes more efficient use 
of operator time than any other 
data manager we've reviewed. 
Those familiar with Steve Punter's 
WordPro programs will have little 
trouble using MailPro, (Others 
will be lost in space — the manual 
is hopeless and there are no helps 
or prompts.) Information is laid 
out using a variation of Commo- 
dore's screen input editor, but 
with little control over the location 
< >f fields. Eighty-column fields are 
possible on the 64, but only via 
horizontal scrolling and the screen 
looks messy compared to the 
80-column version. 

Any number of fields may be de- 
fined as prime keys, allowing very 
rapid reference and printouts in 
zip code or other orders. When 
sorting, the program considers 
upper and lower case as the same, 
thus avoiding separating otherwise 
identical entries. Unfortunately, 
duplicate entries are allowed and 
not reported. On the other hand, 
it easily accepts data from other 
programs and restructures its 
own formats without retyping 
and also allows default (automatic) 
contents for each line in the label. 
( )nce data is entered, finding it 
again is quick and easy, as is copy- 
ing it to a printer. 

Mail labels may be up to 23 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 55 



lines long and 160 columns wide. 
Within those limits, the labels may 
be set up with all the precision of a 
word processor and the resulting 
print formats saved for reuse 
later. Any part of a mail list may 
be printed. 

MailPro is very fast and easy to 
use for simple but large applica- 
tions like subscription lists that 
don't need the full screen format- 
ting, math and huge records of full 
data managers. Unfortunately, after 
entering 1100 records, our CBM 
version began inventing spurious 
extra copies of some records. 
Pro-Line was very helpful in sal- 
vaging the data, but has thus far 
been unable to isolate the prob- 
lem. Short of such high limits, 
Mail Pro works extremely well. 
Recommended. 

MDM Database Manager 

MDM includes many of the 
features we recommend in a 
data manager, such as flexible ar- 
rangement of fields, sorts on any 
combination of fields, built-in 
math, ability to select records with 
common contents in a selected 
field, easy updates of multiple rec- 
ords and huge size limits. Forms, 
for instance, may be up to 60 lines 
long, allowing you to design 
something that would fill a nor- 
mal sheet of paper. There is also 
a built-in label maker, flexible 
enough for Canadian postal codes 
and nine-digit zip codes. The 
manual is excellent, as are the on- 
screen helps. A hundred major 
software houses should buy it 
just to see a good manual! 

As for problems, any disk error 
during the creation of a form 
means starting over. Since the 
program reduces disk error mes- 
sages to a number, it may take 
awhile to figure out what caused 
the error. Although you can reuse 
a form or data in a new database, 
we weren't able to modify existing 
forms even slightly. We strongly 
wish the cursor up and down keys 
were usable for moving between 
fields, as they're in most other 
products we've looked at. 

Although MDM is intended to 

56 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



work with the C64-Link IEEE-488 
interface (when relocated to 
$C000), it does not work properly 
with the Commodore 4040 dual 
disk drive, nor with a serial bus 
printer plugged in along with the 
C64-Link. It does, however, work 
well with the normal 1541 disk 
drive plus serial bus printer. The 
only other problem we noticed is 
that we were unable to persuade it 
to leave a zip code at the left end 
of afield. 

Sorts are rapid but not ex- 
tremely fast. With 57 records, both 
a zip code sort and an alpha sort 
required 22 seconds. 

Even though we had some prob- 
lems with this new program, it is 
powerful enough to merit consid- 
eration alongside the best single- 
file data handlers for the 64. 

Silicon Office 

Silicon Office combines a 
database language, relational data 
files and a good word processor 
in a single program. Several inde- 
pendently defined files may be de- 
fined and related in nearly anyway 
with it. However, Silicon Office's 
real power is that all its options 
are completely integrated. 

As a true database language, 
it includes many of the expected 
amenities: numeric and string vari- 
ables or expressions, parentheses, 
arithmetic, comparisons, subsorts, 
high-speed wild card searches, 
IF-THEN, GOTO, built-in functions 
(notably a calendar) and the ability 
to work in both immediate and 
programmed modes. However, it 
lacks PRINT AT, MID$ and GOSUB! 

As a word processor it has true 
multicolumn printing, links 120- 
150 page documents in a single 
file, evaluates complex expres- 
sions at print time and adds in 
data from any current file. Text 
is continuously formatted with 
word wrap and horizontal scrol- 
1 ing on wide documents. Text is 
also justified even within words. 
However, abandoned files are 
not erased and must periodi- 
cally be cleaned up from outside 
Silicon Office. 

Silicon Office comes with an 



easily understood training manual 
plus a very complete, durable and 
well organized reference manual. 
The program itself includes sev- 
eral help screens, with cross ref- 
erences to the manual. A diskette 
of sample screen masks is also 
available. 

The chief advantage of the more 
costly hard disk version is its abil- 
ity to have a single file up to the 
capacity of the hard disk and back 
the whole thing up on 8050 disk- 
ettes. It's also nice to be able to have 
30 files instead of six and to have 
data and work files on the same 
drive. It also allows the user to 
scratch data files from within the 
program and send special charac- 
ters to printers. 

My main complaint is that data 
printouts are slower than molasses 
flowing uphill. A simple mail label 
run of 1,500 names takes 14 hours. 
Silicon Office lacks one other de- 
sirable feature: the ability to refer 
to field names as array variables. 
This makes it almost impossible to 
design a way for an unskilled user 
to update only one of a large 
number of similar fields. 

If you could have only one pro- 
gram, Silicon Office is still in the 
running, especially if you write 
multicolumn documents. 

Superbase 

Superbase is easily the most 
sophisticated database currently 
available for the 64 and B-128 and 
among the very best for the CBM 
8096 as well. It excels in handling 
and relating data from multiple 
files and also includes a true data- 
base language that contains nearlv 
all the important commands of 
BASIC itself. With it you can write 
your own programs and even com- 
plete application systems able to 
run on their own without inter- 
vention by their users. (Up to 4K 
long on the 64 and 8K on the 
8096.) Like the best competing 
programs, Superbase allows full 
screen formatting of data, has com- 
pletely flexible report formats 
and easily sends its data to popular 
word processors. It also makes re- 
structuring simpler than any other 



data manager we've tested. B-128 
owners will also find it makes 
good use of the function keys 
to reduce typing. 

The documentation is excellent, 
although learning to use such a 
powerful program inevitably takes 
a good deal of time. On the other 
hand, onscreen menus and num- 
erous help screens make getting 
started fairly simple. Later you can 
add your own help screens and 



More Databases 

The following currently avail- 
able products were also reviewed 
in the Midnite Software Gazette, 
but were not rated as highly as the 
attached programs. 

64 Mail List for 64, from DES. 

Dafa Manager for VIC or 64, from 

MicroSpec. 

Filing Assistant for 64, from 

Rainbow. 

Infodisk for 64, from Beaver. 

Infomast for 64, from Rabbit. 

Infopro for CBM, from Professional. 

IRMA for CBM, from Commodore. 

JINSAM for CBM, from Mini 

Microsystems. 

Mail Mate for 64, from 

Commodore. 

M'File for 64, from Double E. 

Microbase for VIC+8K or 64, 

from Daedalus Digital. 

The Name Machine for 64, 

from Commodore. 

TOTLInfomaster for 64, 

from TOTL. 

A few other products were also 
excluded, in spite of excellent 
reviews, because they are in- 
tended for special purposes. 
These include: 
ASERT for CBM, from CFI. 
(Primarily for employment 
agencies.) 

EQUIP for PET/CBM or 64, from 
The Codeworks. {Primarily for 
home inventories.) 
Master for CBM and 64, from 
Abacus. (Primarily a program- 
mer's aid.) 

OZZ for CBM, from Commo- 
dore. (Primarily for searching 
through data.) 
Research Assistant for VIC 
or 64, from TOTL. (Primarily 
for research.) 



other memos to yourself. 

The only limitations that will 
likely trouble you are the limita- 
tion of one prime key (shared by 
all current programs offering mul- 
tiple files) and its inability to work 
with any disk drive other than the 
one for which it was purchased 
(due to its DOS protection). But 
this will only be troublesome to 
1 54 1 owners with access to larger 
disks, Area dealers report it has 
become their best-selling data 
manager and praise for it seems 
universal. Highly recommended 
for 64 owners and others who 
don't need the added features 
of Super Office. 

Super Office 

This is the only integrated sys- 
tem I've tested besides Silicon 
Office and it appears to be vastly 
better than its renowned competi- 
tor. Super Office combines all of 
the power of Superhose, Super 
Script H and Super Spell in a uni- 
fied whole. Since each of these is 
among the very best available pro- 
grams in their respective fields, 
having them together and able to 
use each others' data automatically 
is a huge advantage over all com- 
petitors. That it is also among the 
very first commercial programs to 
work with the new B-128 model 
makes it all the more attractive. 

For information about file han- 
dling in Super Office, see the re- 
view for SuperBose. To this, add 
all the features of Super Script, 
plus word wrap (no broken words 
at line ends) and Super Spell's 
30,000 (expandable) word dictio- 
nary. As in Silicon Office, the word 
processor can pull in any data 
from any active file anywhere in a 
document, giving extreme flexibil- 
ity and ease in planning report 
formats and bulk mailings. How- 
ever, unlike Silicon Office, all this 
happens quickly. Although the 
spelling checker is not available 
simultaneously with the data 
manager, it is loaded together with 
the word processor, thus easing 
the process of checking a fin- 
ished document. 

The price of Super Office is 



far less than that of any compet- 
ing program and the program 
comes from a very reputable 
company. New as it is, I love it. 
Highly recommended. 

TOTLLabel 

TOTLLabel is a good mail list 
program for small lists. The 64 
version is very much like the VIC 
version, but slightly improved. For 
instance, the VIC version can print 
labels one or two across. The 64 
version can also print labels three 
across and in report format. 

When selecting which labels 
to print from the whole file, you 
can select just one label, only 
those added or changed or the 
entire label, only those added or 
changed or the entire file. There 
are no further categorizations. Its 
format is limited and preset, but 
you may sort labels alphabetically 
or numerically, on any field. You 
can also suppress the printing of 
one line of info. 

The instructions are quite help- 
ful and easy to understand. The 
company responds quickly to 
problems and cares about users. 
Evidence of this arrived just as our 
reviewer finished — a new version 
of the program at no charge, with 
better sorting and searching fea- 
tures, added disk-handling com- 
mands and the ability to use two 
disk units. Since the program is 
in BASIC and not protected, it 
has also proven easy to change 
for special needs. 

With new products appearing 
almost daily, it is inevitable that 
some worthy products will have 
been omitted. For example, 
Home File Write and Code Writer 
are currently being reviewed, as 
is The Last One. Unlike the data 
handlers reviewed here, these 
programs generate BASIC file- 
handling programs for you. For 
more information on these and 
other new products as they ap- 
pear, you may wish to read the 
reviews in Tile Midnite Software 
Gazette regularly. For a sample 
issue, send a postcard to: The 
Midnite Software Gazette, 635 
Maple, Mt. Zion, IL 62549. C 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



57 



Spreadsheets 




Number Processing 

With 
MuMptenGPractiealc 

By Betsy Byrne & Richard Kotomori, md 



Two excellent spreadsheets 

for the Commodore 64 represent 

the high and low end of what's available. 



Everybody knows 
computers are terrific 
at math, right? The 
same "everybody" 
(usually a friend, rela- 
tive, co-worker or authors of mag- 
azine articles) told you that with a 
personal computer you would be 
able to computer everything — 
household budgets, paper routes, 
stock and bond features, rental 
property income and expenses or 
a teacher's gradebook. 
Another little thing that you 



58 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct 1934 




ILLUSTRATOR— CARMEN CONSOLE 



may have heard "everybody" men- 
tion at least once or twice is that 
computers are famous for project- 
ing "what if" simulations, allowing 
users to make mathematical mod- 
els to predict the outcome of just 
about anything that a human can 
devise a formula to encompass. 
"Everybody" is sure to have seen 
the outcome of an election pre- 
dicted, or has, himself, computed 
the probable average temperature 
in Truth Or Consequences, New 
Mexico, in September of 1985. 



But when the computer arrived 
in your home (or office) you 
found that these powerful features 
didn't come built in —you had to 
buy software to make them hap- 
pen. And if you happened to be a 
political candidate teaching at the 
local university, with three kids 
working paper routes, an Amway 
business and a spouse who owns 
several rental properties, you 
found that the same good old 
"everybody" who touted the com- 
puter's abilities in the first place, 



sent you running off in six dif- 
ferent directions to spend lots of 
money buying eight different pro- 
grams to enable your computer 
to do all of the aforementioned 
things. After you got those soft- 
ware packages home, of course, 
you, your children and your 
spouse had to spend hours, days 
or weeks learning to operate 
them — before any of you could 
use the computer for the tasks you 
bought it for in the first place. 
If this scenario sounds familiar 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS SepL/Oct. 1964 59 



and you are nodding your head 
right now and thinking, "That 
sounds like me (us)," then your 
particular "everybody" forgot to 
tell you (or didn't know) about 
spreadsheet software, A spread- 
sheet is a program that can do all 
the jobs I have mentioned and 
more — many more. 

Like your word processing and 
database software, you only have 
to buy a spreadsheet once and it 
will perform multiple tasks. To- 
gether with your word processor 
and database, a spreadsheet is 
one of die trinity of workhorse 
programs that no software library 
should be without, although it is 
probably the least used and most 
misunderstood of the three. Yet, 
it is absolutely necessary for busi- 
ness applications and can be 
indispensable at home and in 
the classroom. 

Possibly the best known spread- 
sheet program is Visicalc from 
Visicorp. This program has been 
called "the most versatile piece of 
software ever written." Visicalc 
may have been the first, but 
Multiplan and the others were not 
far behind and may even have im- 
proved on Visicalc when it comes 
to ease of use. 

Please don't stop reading this 
because you already know about 
these powerful tools. I am going to 
explain them by way of reviewing 
two of the best packages on the 
market (excluding the ones made 
by Commodore itself), Multiplan 
and Practicalc. I chose these two 
because they are good and be- 
cause they represent the high road 
and the low road, money-wise. 
Multiplan lists for $99.95, and is 
one of the best known products 
on all brands of computers — 
including IBM (and workalikes), 
Apple and Wang. Practicalc, 
$39-95, was designed for Com- 



modore machines, although it 
has now been translated for 
other brands. 

Multipkm was written by 
the software giants, Microsoft, 
the people who designed the 
industry-standard version of 
BASIC. Practicalc was written by 
Computer Software Associates, 
Inc., a New England company 
whose name is familiar to many 
Commodore users. 

Multiplan is capable of filling 
the needs of the largest corpora- 
tion, or doing the simple (only by 
comparison) jobs that home users 
need a spreadsheet to perform. 
Practicalc, on the other hand, is 
just the thing for the paper routes 
and checkbook balancing, or the 
one thousand and one applica- 
tions needed by a family on a tight 
budget. I use it myself for, among 
other things, keeping track of the 
expenses that 1 am supposed 
to itemize and turn in to my 
editor — phone calls, stamps, 
mileage, etcetera. 

All very nice, you say, but how 
do the blamed things work? If 1 
didn't spend a few words talking 
about how-to, I might be in dan- 
ger of being categorized with the 
"everybody" I referred to at the 
start of this article. Those of you 
who already know a bit about 
spreadsheet terminology must 
bear with me while I tell the rest 
of the folks what's what with 
rows, columns, labels and cells. 

Visualize a teacher's grade 
book — everyone probably took 
a peek at one of these when the 
teacher wasn't looking or may 
even have been called up to the 
desk (as I was) and told by their 
own equivalent of my Mrs. Weath- 
erup: "Just look at all these zeros, 
Betsy! I will give you just one 
more chance to make up those 
math assignments before I call 



your parents.' 

Across the top of the page, in 
spite of my knocking knees, I saw 
dates and abbreviations that corre- 
sponded to the assignments given 
that marking period, three of 
which I had missed. If Mrs. weath- 
erup had been using Practicalc, 
she might have told me that these 
were labels (alphanumeric text 
strings) dancing across the top 
row (horizontal line) of a work- 
sheet (the entire page you are 
working on. only part of which 
appears on the 64's screen at 
any time if it is more than 40 
characters across). 

Along the left hand edge of the 
page were the names of the chil- 
dren in the class, listed vertically. 
Again, if my elementary school in 
East Rockwood, Michigan, had 
used a computer, I might have 
learned that the names (labels) 
were occupying column (verti- 
cal line) number one (I noticed 
Linda was handing in all of 
her assignments). 

My name was the sixteenth on 
the list (spreadsheet coordinate 
column one, row 16). About half- 
way across the page were the of- 
fending zeros, three of them in a 
row {row 16, column 5, 6 and 
7), looking red and uglv under 
Linda's 80, 82 and 70. 

If Mrs. Weatherup's Commo- 
dore 64 had been up and running 
(an impossibility in 1959), she 
might have gone directly to those 
zeros by giving the program their 
cell (the individual square or 
entry) coordinates, row 16, col- 
umn 5, etcetera, to change them to 
the 90, 95 and 100 I received on 
the papers I eventually turned in 
(better than Linda!). 

If the gradebook had really 
been on the computer (as teacher 
John Cushmans is, whose printout 
is used in Examples 1 and 2), Mrs. 



60 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 19B4 







Weatherup could have set a for- 
mula in the last cell of each row 
that instructed the spreadsheet 
to average all my grades for the 
marking period and make the re- 
sulting grade appear in that cell 
(row 16, column 15, since there 
were 13 cells used for grades and 
one for my name) and as if by 
magic, a "98%" would have oc- 
cupied that (oh so critical) spot. 
Her next step would have been to 
print out her grade information at 
the end of the marking period, 
sorted by highest average to low- 
est, even though she recorded 
them in alphabetical order (then 
my name would have been ahead 
of Linda's!). On Practicalc this 
would have taken only three key- 
strokes and a RETURN. 

Put more concisely: a computer 
spreadsheet is simply a grid, or 
worksheet, onto which rows and 
columns of numbers or other in- 
formation (labels) may be entered 
and on which common mathemat- 
ical functions can be performed. 
Some of the functions that you 
can instruct a spreadsheet to 
perform are: 

Sum, average, maximum 
and minimum of a range 
of numbers. 
Counting the number 
of entries. 
Sine and Cosine 
Tangent and Cotangent 
Determination of logarithm, 
exponents, absolutes, integer, 
square (roots). 
Decimal formatting 
Defined functions, i.e., add- 
ing column 3 to column 5, 
multiplying column 18 by 
.0468% sales tax, or anything 
your heart desires as long as 
you can devise a formula 
for it. 

Printing up to 132 columns 
to your printer by activating 




condensed mode. 

Printing graphs in high- or 

low-resolution depending on 

your printer and interface 

(if any). 

Sorting, both alphabetic 

and numeric. 
These are a few of the things 
that both programs do, and that is 
without even scratching the sur- 
face. Pretty impressive — but how 
easy is it to learn how to use one? 
All those mathematical functions 
looked rather intimidating, and 
Mrs. Weatherup would be the first 
to tell you that 1 didn't enjoy doing 
my math homework. I didn't think 
it would be easy (1 started with 
Practicalc almost a year ago) and 
it wasn't. But neither was grow- 
ing up, learning to swim, having 
children or learning to use my 
word processor— all of which 
I wouldn't have missed for 
anything! 

The best way to learn to operate 
a word processor, database or 
spreadsheet is to give the manual a 
once over, go through the tutorial 
(if it has one— both Multiplan and 
Practicalc do), then dig in and 
only worn' about the commands 
thai you have to use for the job at 
hand. The manuals will still be 
there if you have to do a form let- 
ter on your word processor, calcu- 
lated fields on your database, or 
tangent or cotangent functions on 
your spreadsheet. I personally 
have never had to use any ofthe.se 
nifty features that are a part of my 
software's repertoire, but always 
feel very secure knowing that they 
are there if I need them. 

It will probably take you, 
depending on your computer 
interaction skills and manual 
reading abilities, am where from 
several hours to several days to 
breeze through the fundamentals 
of Practicalc or Multiplan. How 



long it will take to become pro- 
ficient depends on too many 
random factors for even a spread- 
sheet to predict — but everyone 
1 know who has stuck it out 
feels it was more than worth 
the time involved. 

Let's talk about Multiplan for 
a minute. Marketed by LIES for 
Microsoft, the news that it was 
available for the Commodore 64 
caused more excitement than is 
usual when a software product is 
released. Possibly the most well 
known spreadsheet next to 
Visicalc, Multiplan didn't fail to take 
advantage of the special features of 
the 64. Although the earlier ver- 
sions were not in color, the disk 
that I purchased to write this arti- 
cle (with copious notes and much 
advice from Dr. Richard Kotomori, 
who uses the package) came up in 
living color and allowed me to 
choose my own favorite color 
combinations to work with. If 
you are reading this and have a 
Multiplan disk that does not fea- 
ture this option, you may send it 
back with the amount specified in 
the manual to receive an update. 

So why was everyone so ex- 
cited about another spreadsheet? 
Thousands of businessmen use 
Multiplan at their offices and 
many spend dollars they can ill af- 
ford to buy the same expensive PC 
that they use at work just so they 
can work on their files at home 
occasionally. The software for the 
PC is probably more expensive 
than for a 64 and of course no 
other computer could be as 
talented or versatile as the 
Commodore (prejudiced? ME?). 

Now these folks can have their 
cake and eat it too, so to speak. 
With a Commodore 64, Multiplan 
and a modem, they can download 
Multiplan files from the office, 
save them on the 64 and work on 






COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 61 



them at home! Of course if they 
are using 128K of memory for 
a specific worksheet, it won't 
come across too well, but most 
files transfer just fine. 

Another nice thing about the 
Commodore version of Multiplan 
is that the whole thing is menu- 
driven, with extensive explana- 
tions available within the program. 
After a bit of experience with 
Practicalc, Multiplan's menus 
seemed self-explanatory to me at 
first glance. Of course I didn't try 
any tangents, but Dr. Kotomori 
and others assured me that all 
Multiplan's features are very 



easy to use. 

Another Multiplan feature that 
impressed me greatly is its ability 
to access files on disk to create 
another master file. A good way to 
illustrate this is with the example 
another Multiplan-using friend 
gave. He owns five rental prop- 
erties, each of which he keeps rec- 
ords on. He needs to know how 
much money he is spending on 
repairs, taxes, utilities and his 
payments on the houses. He has to 
balance each one with the rent he 
receives from his tenants, his tax 
benefits and so on. At the end of 
his fiscal year, he must bring all 



this information together into one 
worksheet, and Multiplan gives 
him the ability to do so. Most 
other spreadsheets available 
for the Commodore 64 do not. 

Multiplan also allows the user 
to call information by name — to 
name a cell, not just use its work- 
sheet coordinates. You could call 
your grand total field "George" 
or even "Grand total", and direct 
Multiplan to perform special cal- 
culations with it: e.g., add "Tax" 
(a named cell with the value of 
your local sales tax) to "George" 
(the grand total of all of George's 
sales). You can also call a named 



Figure 1 

Teacher John Cushman's 
Practicalc worksheet for his 
seventh-grade literature class. 
Working with a 4.0 scale, he as- 


signs values to each type of assign- 
ment: e.g., book reports count as 
25% of each student's grade 
(BRAVG-Book Report Average). 


This example was printed out as 
entered; in alphabetical order, 
but with names deleted and only 
ID numbers showing. 


1D 


BR1 


BR2 


BR3 BRAv'b 



Ql 


Q2 


53 BAV6 



Tl 


T2 


T3 6LAVG 



SSR 



GPSS BR6RGRADE 



N 












2.5 


3 2.75 




3 


2.91.4375 


4 


01.B375 


453627 


3.7 


3.4 


3.83,6333 




4 


4 4 


2.5 


1.6 


3.5 1.35 


4 


4.908333.2583 


269211 


3 


3.8 


3.93.5666 




4 


4 4 


3.5 


3.1 


3.51.7666 


4 


4.891663.6583 


419707 


1.9 





0.63333 




3.1 


43.0333 


1.5 


2.2 


2.81.1222 


4 


4.158332.2805 


395596 


1.9 


2.1 


01.3333 


2.5 


4 


4 3.5 


3 


3.8 


41.7166 


4 


4.33333 3.05 


264843 





2.7 


.9 




3.1AB 


2.05 


3.1AB 


AB 


1.2B75 


4 


4 .2252.5125 


319199 








0AB 


2.5 


4 3.25 


7 


1.6 


41,3083 


4 


01.7083 


358556 


OH 


H 





IN 


H 


1 


1.5N 


M 


.625 


4H 


1.025 


285457 
295412 


3.1 

2.8 



2.6 


01.0333 
1.8 




2.5AB 
4 


2.25 
4 4 


.8 
2.5 


.BAB 

2.3 


.64166 
41.4666 


4 
4 


4.25833 1.9 




4 .452.9166 


306153 


2.4 


2.6 


01.6666 




2.5 


3.52.3333 


2.8 


1.6 


31.1222 


4 


1.416662.0888 


313329 











1AB 


AS 


1 


.8 


.4AB 


.36666 


4 


0.76666 


339108 
419715 



2.4 



3.4 



.92.2333 


1.5 



3 


21.1666 
32.6666 


2.4 


.4 


2.66111 
31.5277 


4 
4 


4 01.6611 


3.3 


3.2 


3.558332.9361 


82729 













1AB 


1 


.1 


. SAB 


.31666 


4 


0.71666 







ON 


*ERRQR 




1 


lERBDRM 




OH 


*ERR0R 


2 


0*ERRQR*ERR0R 


296503 


1.9 


2 


21.9666 




3 


43.6666 


3.1 


3.2 


41.6611 


4 


3.491663.0027 


314545 





2.9 


2.5 1.8 


3? 




1.5 2,25 


.9 


4 


31.1916 


4 


4 .452.6416 


82677 













2.5 


11.1666 


2.8 


1.8 


3.3.96111 


3 


3 01.7111 


370811 













1.5 


0.83333 


.6AB 


AB 


.35833 


4 


4 01.3583 


319167 


3.9 


3.8 


3.85 


m 


AB 


1 


4AB 




4 1.25 


4 


4 .96253.2125 


272900 








2.5.83333 


2.5 


4 


4 3. SAB 




1.6AB 


1.275 


4 


4.208332.4833 


419685 





2.7 


2.21.6333 




3 


43.6666 


2.4 


3 


41.5111 


4 


2.408332.6194 


381490 


1.6 





2.21.2666 


2AB 




2 2 


2 


1 


2.83333 


4 


4.31666 2.15 


62 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 















cell from disk as discussed in the 
last paragraph. 

Naturally, Multiplan has many 
more features that i have neither 
the need nor patience to explore 
right now, or the room to print. 
The Multiplan manual, after all, 
is 422 pages long excluding the 
index and there have been numer- 
ous books written about the pack- 
age as well. The Commodore ver- 
sion does use the special function 
keys — it even gives you an overlay 
to remind you that Fl is "tab" and 
so on. If you are used to using it 
on another machine, the manual 
has a page full of the standard Mul- 



tiplan commands and their Com- 
modore equivalents— both of 
which will work— making sure 
that no Wang user need give 
up his control (key) to use 
Multiplan on the 64. Multiplan 
is compatible with Omnitvriter 
(formerly Busiivriter) and 
Omnifile (formerly Busifile), 
giving its owner the power of a 
triad that interact and load each 
others" files. 

What about Practicalc? Al- 
though most packages would suf- 
fer in comparison to Multiplan, I 
think that Practicalc holds its own 
admirably. After all, not everyone 



needs all those features, and I have 
found Practicalc does everything 
diat I need a spreadsheet to do 
easily and in a format familiar to a 
Commodore owner. It interacts 
with the Practicalc database from 
CSA and a version is available for 
the VIC 20 as well. I have always 
felt that the true test of any pro- 
gram is whether it will do what 
you want it to, and Practicalc has 
passed that test with flying colors. 
In fact, I am about to enter my 
purchase of Multiplan as a $99-95 
expense related to writing this 
article — on my familiar Practicalc 
worksheet. C 



Figure 2 

The same data as in Figure 1, 
using three keystrokes and a 
[RETURN] to have Practicalc sort 
the data from highest average to 



ID 

269211 
453627 
319167 
395596 
296503 
419715 
295412 
314545 
419685 
264843 
272900 
419707 
381490 
306153 
285457 



N 



82677 
319199 
339108 
370811 
358556 
313329 

82729 



BR1 

3 

3.7 

3.9 

1.9 

1.9 

2.4 

2.8 








1.9 
1.6 
2 
3.1 



4 2 













OH 







BR2 
3.8 
3.4 
3.8 
2.1 

2 
3.4 
2.6 
2.9 
2.7 
2.7 







6 





OH 








H 







the lowest. Note that John did not 
format his averages in decimal 
mode, since he was not working 
with money. If he had, his figures 
would have been rounded to two 



BR3 BRAVG 

3.93. 5666 

3.83.6333 

3.85 

01.3333 

21.9666 

.92.2333 

1.8 

2.5 1.8 

2.21.6333 

.9 

2.5.83333 

0.63333 

2.21.2666 

01.6666 

01.0333 



*ERR0R 



Ql 
4 
4 
1AB 

2.5 
4 
2 
4 
3? 




0AB 










• J 

2 

2AB 
1 
2 

1 


.5 
1 

1H 

IAD 

1 



Q2 

4 



AB 



4 

3 

3 
4 

7 

3.1AB 

4 
3.1 

2.5 
2. SAB 
2.5 

1 
2.5 
2.5 


1.5 
H 
AB 

1AB 



3 BAVB 

4 4 
4 4 

1 
4 3.5 
43.6666 
32.6666 

4 4 

5 2.25 
43.6666 

2.05 
4 3. SAB 
43.0333 

2 2 
52.3333 

2.25 

3 2.75 
♦ERR0RAB 

11.1666 

4 3.25 
21.1666 
0.83333 

1 
1 
1 




Tl 
3.5 

7 5 



4AB 

7 
J 

3.1 
3.3 
2.5 
.9 
2.4 
3.1AB 

1.5 
2 



T2 
3.1 
1.6 

3.B 
3.2 
3.2 



2.8 

3 

2.4 

.6AB 
1.5K 

.8 

.1 



2.3 

4 

3 

AB 
1.6AB 
2.2 

1 
1.6 

.a A3 

3 

OH 
1.8 
1.6 
.4 
AB 
H 
JAB 
.BAB 



decimal points. The error in line 
18 resulted from a student receiv- 
ing zeros for all assignments, ac- 
cording to John. 



13 SLAVE 

3.51.7666 

3.5 1.35 

4 1.25 

41.7166 

41.6611 

31.5277 

41.4666 

31.1916 

41.5111 

1.2875 

1.275 

2.B1.1222 

2.83333 

31.1222 

.64166 

2.91.4375 

♦ERROR 

3.3.96111 

41,3003 

2.66111 

.35333 

.625 

.36666 

.31666 





SSR 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
3 
4 
4 
4 

4U 
4 
4 




BPSS BR6RGRADE 
4.891663.6583 
4.908333.2583 
4 .96253.2125 
4.33333 3.05 
3.491663.0027 
3.558332.9361 



.452.9166 

.452.6416 

408332.6194 

.2252.5125 

208332.4833 

15B332.2805 

4.31666 2.15 

1.416662.0888 

4.25833 1.9 

01.B375 

0»ERRQR*ERROR 



01.7111 
01.7083 
01.6611 
01.3583 
1.025 
0.76666 
0.71666 




COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 63 



Productivity 

Software 

lor 
Commodore 

Computers 

Data for this chart was supplied by .MENU, a database 

provided by the International Software Database 

Corporation. For further evaluative information and 

ordering, contact Bill Louden, The International 

Database Corporation, 1520 South College Avenue, 

Fort Collins, CO 80524. The toll free number is 

1-800-THE-MENU or 303-482-5000 (in Colorado 

or outside the U.S.). 



Accounting 

Name 


Vendor 


Computer 


Subjects 


Description 


Purchase Ledger with 
Nominal Accounts 


Anagram Systems 


64 
4016 
4032 
8032 
8096 


Commercial/Accounts 
Payable 


A stand alone purchase ledger. 

Maintains a tile open item supplier accounts. Invoices, payments and credit 
notes are posted to each account. Each invoice may be analyzed over six 
nominal headings (plus VAT}. Maintains year-to-date and last years totals 
for each nominal account. Detailed reports include: invoice list, discounts 
available list, supplier statements, nominal account print (summary), 
nominal account print (detail), list of nominal transactions, payments list, 
debit note list, outstanding balances, invoices outstanding, supplier names 
and addresses. 


Sales Ledger with 
Invoicing 


Anagram Systems 


64 
4016 
4032 


Commercial/ Accounting 
General Ledger 


A stand-alone sales ledger and invoice printing package. 

Maintains a file ot open item customer accounts and invoices, payments 

and credit notes to be posted to each account. Full financial details of each 


64 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 





Name 



Vendor 



Computer Subjects 



Description 



8032 
8096 



invoice are kept on file until Ihe month end following payment. Invoice 
allows up to 20 lines per page and may be multi-page. Customer accounts 
may be grouped into sale areas for report printing. Trade and settlement 
discounts are catered for. Maintenance of comprehensive customer files. 
Detailed reports. 



Genera) Ledger 



Commodore 



64 Commercial/Accounting 
General Ledger 



Customized chart of accounts, convenient entry of cash receipts, 
disbursements, general journal transactions. Interfaces with other 
accounting modules (or automated posting of transactions. Maintains 
account balances monthly, quarterly, yearly, previous quarters and years. 



Receivable/Billing 



Commodore 



64 Commercial/Accounts Maintains customer masterfile, automatic billing with credit checking, item 

Receivable descriptions, unit pricing, extensions when interfaced. Flexible billing and 

unit price, automatically posts billing and ages open receivables by 30, 60, 
90 day categories. 



Accounts Payable- 
Checkwriting 



Commodore 



Commercial/Acco tints Mai nta ins vendor master life, a utomatic aging of open invoices, automatic 

Payable combi nation of invoices by vendor and prints checks with ful I remittance 

detail. Provides open item aging by 30. 60, 90 day categories. 
Interfaces with General Ledger. 



Payroll 



Commodore 



64 Commercial/Accounting 
Payroll 



Master record of each employee pay activity, calculates period pay amount 
including all lax and miscellaneous deductions, prints payroll checks with 
full pay deduction detail. Includes comprehensive management reporting 
including W2's and 941's. Will interface with General Ledger for auto- 
mated postings. 



Inventory 
Management 



Commodore 



64 Commercial/Accounting 



Perpetual inventory records for all stock items. Processes stock receipts, 
stock issues, slock orders and slock adjustments with full audit trail. 
Optional interlace for automatic billing of inventory items and automated 
stock on hand reduction. Capable o( selectively calculating reorder level 
and economic order quantity by inventory category. Assists management 
in parts ordering by generating shortage and re-order reports. 



The Home Accountant 
Plus 



Continental 
Software 



64 Commercial/Accounling 
integrated Systems 
Personal/Finances 
Personal/Household 
Management 



This is a complete personal/business accounting package which maintains 
as much as 200 budget categories. The program keeps track of up to five 
checkbooks and 2000 transactions per month. II can flag any transaction 
to be recalled lor any use and performs a variety of accounting functions: 
monitors cash How, checks, credit cards, assets, liabilities, income/ 
expenses and prints slatements. 



Accounts Payable/ 
Checkwriting Ver-1.3 



Info-Designs 
Inc. 



64 Commercial/Accounts This package keeps track of vendors and unpaid invoices and prints corn- 
Payable puterized checks with full remittance detail. 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE/CHECKWRITING maintains vendor master file 
including vendor name, address, telephone number, year-to-date pur- 
chases and carrenl balance lor up fo 150 vendors. It also provides 
automatic aging of open invoices and automatically combines invoices 
by vendor and prints checks with full remittance detail. Also provided is 
an open item aging report by 30, 60 and 90 day categories. Key reports 
include: vendor Listing, Aged Open Invoice Listing, Closed Invoice List- 
ing, Single Vendor Report Computerized Checks, 



Accounts Receivable/ 
Billing Ver-1,4 



Info-Designs 

Inc 



64 Commercial'Axounts This package provides flexible billing ol customers. Also included with fhe 
Receivable package is statement preparation. 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/BILLING maintains the customer master file includ- 
ing customer name, address, credit limit, year-lo-date activity and current 
balance for up to 150 customers. It will automatically post billings to 
customer receivables record and automatically ages open receivables by 
30, 60 and 90 day categories. Key reports include: Customer Listing, Aged 
Receivables Report, Customer Bills and Computerized Statements. 



General Ledger 
Ver-1.4 



Info-Designs 

Inc. 



64 Commercial/Accounling 

General Ledger 



This is a financial reporting system that produces customized income 
statements, balance sheet and special reports. This package provides a 
customized Chart-of-Accounts to meet specific reporting requirements. 
It a'so provides convenient entry ol cash receipts and disbursements and 
general journal transactions. Maintains account balances for present 
month, quarter-to-dale, year-lo-date, previous quarters and previous year. 
I! will also pinpoint profitable and non-profitable areas. Reports include: 
G/L Account Listing, Trial Balance, Income Statement, Balance Sheet and 
special reports. 



Accounts Payaole Orbyte Software 



64 



Commercial/ Accounts 
Payable 



This program offers time-efficiency in keeping up-to-date records of 
creditor accounts. 

Features inctude: Capacity to hold up to BOO vendor accounts per disk with 
a per invoice maximum of $99,999.99. Allows the user to design his own 
vendor lile lormal including data on vendor name, account*, address, 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept/Oct. 1984 65 



Name 



Vendor 



Computer Subjects 



Description 



telephone # , dale ot accounl opening, amount due, billing date, invoice 
#, date ot las! payment, amount of last payment, interest incurred, current 
status, remarks and any other data the user designates, Enter all applicable 
invoice data including purchases, discounts, returns and payments. Addi- 
tion, deletion and modiiicalion of any account or invoice data. 



Accounts Receivable Orbyte Soltware 



64 Commercial/Accounts ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE provides an extensive series of information on 

Receivable clients' statistics, invoices, payments, adjustments and late fee. ACCOUNTS 

RECEIVABLE has the ability lo hold up to 800 individual accounts per disk 
with 2400 active invoices also possible. Accounts are automatically aged 
by categories of Current Due, 30, 60 or 90 Days Due. The user can choose 
the system of filing that most fils his needs— either alphabetically or num- 
erically by accounl number. This program allows the user lo design Ihe dala 
lo be included in the formal ot the Account Record, Invoice Record, Pay- 
ment Record, Credil and Debit Memos and Late Fee Record. A variety ol 
statements can he prepared automatically. 



General Ledger Orbyte Software 



64 Commercial/Accounting 
General Ledger 



GENERAL LEDGER compiles all data concerning financial management into 
a concise, comprehensive accounting record. 
GENERAL LEDGER can hold up lo 600 individual accounts per disk, each 
with a maximum dollar value of $9,999,999,99. The user may formal these 
accounts to meet his specific needs. Debit and credit balancing is auto- 
matic. Account balances for month end. quarter end and year-to-date are 
established. A Chart of Accounts can be called up and provides detailed 
information on each account. Special comparisons and evaluations of 
current year vs. prior year are available instantly on demand. 
Reports include Close Out Statements, Trial Balances, Profit and 
Loss Statements. 



Business Pac 



Paci lie Coast 
Software 



64 Commercial/Accounting- 
General Ledger 



This program utilizes a standard double entry. Will accurately manage your 
business finances with concise, accurate reports. BUSINESS PAC utilizes 
standard chart of accounts, step by step user friendly documentation with 
basic accounting review, incorporates automatic posting to any bank ac- 
counl, handles up to 99 distinct accounts, comprehensive enough to stand 
alone or to interlace with A'P and A/R modules — which are soon to be 
released. Quick and easy transaction entry system, full compliment of 
montn-end reports, video or printer review of all documents. 



TOTL. Business 



TOTL. Software 



64 Commercial/Accounting- 
VIC Integrated Systems 



A set ol straightforward accounting programs for the VIC 20 and 
Commodore 64. 

These integrated programs automate many ol the lime-consuming record- 
keeping tasks faced by tne entrepreneur, salesman or service professional. 



Business Pac 100 



H & E Compulronics 
Inc. 



ViC Commercial/Accouniing- 
PET Integrated Systems 

Commercial/Integrated 
Business Systems 



This program involves 100 ready to use business programs. I! includes 
checkbook maintenance, payroll, accounts receivable, accounts payable. 
inventory control, stock calculations and 94 other programs. II also otlers 
a 128 page users manual. 



The Accountant 



Micro Facilities 
Ltd. 



4032 Commercial/ Accounting- 
Integrated Systems 



The Accountant is an integrated accounting system. 

Tbis package incorporates a budget controller, a purchase controller and a 

sales controller. These programs can be bundled or can stand alone. 



Cashbook 



C & J Computers 



PET Commercial/ Accounting- 
General Ledger 



Designed for taking tne hard work oui ol entering the cashbook and 
analyzing the figures etc. 

Two parts: 1 . Entering daily weekly details with up to 20 separate headings 
and giving an instant printout of those entries, with check balance, forward 
totals. VAT portion of amount may be calculated or entered separately. Items 
are recorded and may be added to. 2. All items are grouped under each in- 
dividual heading under which they were entered. Apart from lile names for 
fields and data, items entered are: code, dale, debit/credit. VAT option, 
cash, check or balance forward and amounl. 



Microledger 



Compumax 
Associates 



PET 



Commercial/Accounling- 
General Ledoer 



General Ledger for small business. 

Matching revenues versus expenses in a classically simple fashion. Re- 
ceives into Irom MICROPAY, MICROREC, MICROINV, and MICROPERS 
Maximum number of user-defined accounts is 867. Transactions per 
session 150-may be increased wilh larger memory size. 



Micropai 



Compumax 
Associates 



PET Commercial/Accounts Accounts Payable lor small business. 

Payable Aged trial balance of A/R A'P; A'P by vendor or by date: prints checks. 

Also updates MICROLEDGER wilh A P created and paid. Master file size 
limited only by disk capacity. 340 lo 1,800 according to format. 



Micropers 



Compumax 
Associates 



PET Commercial/Job Costing 

Job Control 
Commercial/Payroll 
Commercial/Personnel 

Management 



California payroll/personnel system lor small business. 
Payroll register for salaried and hourly; prints paychecks, quarterly 9 
amounts, W-2 forms, Job Cost report-labor, Personnel history. Updates 
MICROLEDGER with Payroll amounts, deductions. Master file size limited 
only hy disk capacity, 340 lo 1,600 according to format. 



86 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



Name 



Vendor 



Computer Subjects 



Description 



Microrec 



Compumax 
Associates 



PET Cammercial/Accounis Accounts Receivable for small business. 

Receivable Updates MICROLEDGER with A/R created and customer and customer 

payments. Master file limited only by disk capacity. 340 to 1,800 according 
to formal. 



CheckwrHer 



Computer House 
Division 



PET Commercial/ Accounts Prints check willi two stubs. 

Payable Asks date, firsl check number and bank balance once at beginning of the 

run. Prints payee name and address to show in window envelope. Prints 
payee stub with date, amount and up to tour comments (to describe items 
or invoices being paid). Prints your stub with all above information plus 
payee name and remaining bank balance. 



Versa Business 



H & E Computronics 
Inc. 



PET Commercial/Accounling- 
Integrated Systems 



This program is a coordinated accounting system with five separate mod- 
ules which can be used individually or in any combination. These modules 
include: General Ledger. Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable, Inventory 
and Payroll. Each module grows as you or your business grows, and 
comes with a professionally written manual, suitable for a first time com- 
puter user Each module also includes a 30 day return policy. 



Nominal Ledger Package 
Ver-3.1 


HB Computers 
Ltd. 


PET 


Commercial/Accounling- 
General Ledger 


A balance forward ledger system. 

Ths system is very easy to use with through validation ol all input. Output 

includes audit trails, on screen inquiries and trail balance reports. 


Sales Ledger Vbr-3.1 


HB Computers 
Lid. 


PET 


Commercial/ Accounts 

Receivable 


A very easy to use balance forward sales accounting package. 


Incomplete Record 
Accounting 


SMA Microcomputers 


PET 


Commercial/Accounting- 
General Ledger 


This package is designed by an accountant lor accounting bookkeeping. 


Nominal Ledger Accounts 


SMA Microcomputers 


PET 


Commercial/Accounting- 
General Ledger 


A suite designed to tie in with the present sales purchase ledgers. 



Purchase Ledger 



Sales Ledger 



SMA Microcomputers PET Commercial/Accounts Open item or balance forward bookkeeping caters (or 1400 suppliers as 

Payable well as 3500 transactions. 

Full supplier details available including present balances and phone 
numbers. All information reviewable at any time, and will produce 
address labels automatically. Transaction files allows post invoices 
to file, post credit notes, post payments to file, and make cash adjust- 
ments as necessary. 

SMA Microcomputers PET Commercial/Accounts Open item or balance forward bookkeeping caters up to 1400 customers 

Receivable as well as 3500 transactions. 

Full customer details available including present balances and phone 
numbers. Information is reviewable at any time, and address labels are 
produced automatically. Transaction file allows you to post invoices 
to file, post credit notes, post payments to file, and make cash adjust- 
ments as necessary 



Irvl 



Sosoft Ltd. 



PET Commercial/Accounting- 
Integrated Systems 
Professions/Industries/ 
CPA 



Accounting records for the practicing accountant. 



Budgets Within Nominal 
Ledgers 



Thistle Computers 



PET Commercial/Accounting- 
Inlegraled Systems 
Commercial/Purchasing 



This package includes: nominal ledger or combined nominal and purchase 
and sales ledgers. 

The facilities within any of the nominal ledger systems to allocate by 
account, a budget for the period and year-to-dale. This can be done either 
by applying an annual budget and specifying the number of periods, or by 
a fixed amount against each of the periods. 



Nominal Ledger 



Thistle Computers 



PET Commercial/Accounting- 
General Ledger 



This package features an account number, description, cumulative balance 

and period balance for each account. 

NOMINAL LEDGER also includes: posting journals (debits and credits) 

and Ihe entry of details produces day book and automatically updates 

the accounts and control account. Reports — gives trial balance 

showing period and cumulative balances lor each account, each cost 

centre and overall. 

Nominal Statement— gives at period end, or on demand, a report 

showing by account the brought forward balances on statements with 

details ol each transaction making up this balance. 



Purchase Ledger 



Thistle Computers 



PET Commercial/Accounts 
Payable 
Commercial/Purchasing 



This package provides full supplier details and postings (invoices, credit 
notes, discounts and cash). 

Reports generated are: Credilors List. Purchase Statement and Circulalion 
(mail shot to all customers). There is also an 'open item' version that 
replaces Ihe brought forward balances on statements with details of each 
transaction making up this balance. Capacity: 450 suppliers and 2000 
transactions per period. 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



67 



Name 



Vendor 



Computer Subjects 



Description 



Sales Ledger 



Thistle Computers PET Commercial/Accounts This program is a complete general sales ledger. 

Receivable Customer details — account number, name and address, credit balances, 

turnover. Posting— invoices and credit notes, cash and discount, journals 
debit and credit. Reports — Statements automatically produced as period 
ends or on request. Debtors List, Circulation — an automatic option to pro- 
duce labels lor a mailshol lo your customers. Also available— open item 
version replacing the brought forward balances with details of each trans- 
action making up this balance. Capacity— 450 customers using 2000 
transactions per period. 



Accounts Payable/ 
Checkwriting Ver-5.1C 



Info-Designs 
Inc. 



8032 Commercial/Accounts This package keeps track of vendors and unpaid invoices and prints corn- 

Payable pulerized checks with full remittance detail. 

This package maintains Ihe vendor master file including Ihe vendor name, 
address, telephone number, year-to-dale purchases and current balance, it 
provides automatic aging of open invoices and combines invoices by ven- 
dor and will print checks with full remittance detail. It also features an open 
item aging report by 30, 60 and 90 day categories. Key reports include: 
Vendor Listing. Aged Open Invoice Listing, Closed Invoice Listing, Single 
Vendor Report and Computerized Checks. 



Accounts Receivable/ 
Billing Ver-5.1G 



Info- Designs 
Inc. 



B032 Commercial/Accounts This is a package that provides flexible billing ol customers. It also in- 

Receivable eludes statement preparation. 

Commercial/Invoicing/ This package will maintain the customer master file including customer 
Order Entry name, address, credit limit, year-to-date activity and current balance for up 

to 750 customers. It provides automatic billing with credit checking, item 
descriptions, unit pricing and extensions when interfaced with Order Entry. 
It automatically ages open receivables by 30, 60 and 90 day categories. Key 
reports include: Customer Listing, Aged Receivables Report, Customer Bill 
and Computerized Statements. 



General Ledger 
Ver-5.0G 



Info-Designs 
Inc. 



8032 Commercial/Accounting- 
General Ledger 



This is a financial reporting system that produces customized income 
statements, balance sheet and special reports. This package will provide a 
customized chart-ol-accounts to meet specific reporting requirements. It 
also provides a convenient entry of cash receipts, disbursements and gen- 
eral journal transactions. It will also maintain account balances for the pres- 
ent month, quarter-to-date, year-to-date, previous quarters and previous 
year. II also features departmental reporting and can pinpoint profitable and 
non-profitable areas. The reports include: General Ledger, Account List- 
ings, Trial Balance, Balance Sheet, Income Statement and special reports. 



Magis Plus 



Management 
Accountability 
Group 



8032 Commercial/Accounling- 
Inlegrated Systems 



This is a real-time processing, fully integrated complete accounting system. 
MAGIS PLUS is a fully integrated accounting system lor small businesses. 
It consists of a general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable, in- 
ventory, and is user friendly. It is presently being used in such businesses 
as sporting goods shops, florists, picture frame shops, floor covering 
stores, tire stores, larming operations, general merchandise stores and 
graphic art studios. This system is time tested, it will produce checks, 
W-2s, 941s, complete or partial employee listings and mailing labels. 



G-Pac 



Megapalm Lid. 



8032 Commerciaf/Accounting- 
8096 Integrated Systems 



G-PAC is an integrated financial and cost-accounting package with 1500 
personal accounts and 900 nominals. 

This modular package can include billing, stock control for continuous 
inventory recording, accounts receivable, accounts payable, nominal 
or general ledger, trial balance and periodic reporting of linancial accounts. 
G-PAC is suitable lor businesses with up to 30 cost centers, 1500 
customer/supplier accounts and 900 nominals. 



Accounts Payable 



Software Corp. 



8032 Commercial/Accounts This software is designed lo be used by any smalt business. This is a col- 

8096 Payable lection of programs to perform the following Accounts Payable capabilities: 

number of transactions— no limit, number ol vendors— 200 per diskette 
max, number of invoices — 6500 per diskette max. or 2000 per vendor 
max. Any number ol data diskettes. Checkwriterprint vendor checks, print 
deposit register and print check register. Summary reports include printed 
aged trial balance and printed vendor list- 



Accounts Receivable 



Software Corp. 



8032 Commercial/Accounts This software is designed to be used by any small business. 

8096 Receivable A collection ol programs thai performs automatic invoicing, reduces ac- 

counting time and expense, produces management reports and summaries. 
It also prints invoices, credit invoices, statements and deposit registers. 
Summary reports available for printing are: Aging Report. Customer List 
and Sales Report. The number ol transactions per data disk— 1500 (limit of 
5 disks) and number of customers per data disk— 200 (limit of 5 disks). 



Job Estimate/Job Cost 



Software Corp. 



8032 
8096 



Commercial/Job Costing/ 
Control 



A collection of job estimating and job costing programs lor small businesses. 
This program allows the job estimator lo generate and maintain Ihe records 
required in the preparation ot detailed estimates of various types. When 
used with the Accounts Payable program Ihe item costs will be posted and 
accumulated as invoices are processed. Reports detailing both dollar and 
percentage variation may be prepared on demand. 



68 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS SepUOct. 1984 



Word Processing 



Name 



Vendor 



Computer Subjects 



Description 



Paperclip 



Batteries Included 



64 



Commercial/Word 
Processing 



PAPERCLIP has every standard word processor function and many exclu- 
sive features, including horizontal scrolling for charts. This program in- 
cludes horizontal scrolling for wide reports (up lo 250 columns), column 
moves, alphanumeric sorts and arithmetic. It works with 80 column cards 
and every popular printer, with in slant printer set up. Featured is profes- 
sional handling ol form letters, mail list merge and large documents. 



Easy Script 



Commodore 



64 Commercial/Word EASY SCRIPT has table producing capabilities, comprehensive printer 

Processing controls, easy update facilities, easy document handling. 



Wordcrafl 80 
Ver-4.14 



Dataview Ltd 



64 Commercial/Word WQRDCRAFT turns your microcomputer into one ol the world's mast 

8032 Processing advanced word processing systems. 

8096 The only Commodore-based multiuser word processing system with up to 

SuperPET eight CBM 8032/8096 CPU's sharing one or more disk drives and printers. 

No extra hardware is required other than a cable. Text is slored on disk in 
chapter format with true proportional spacing. The screen displays Ihe 
finished formal of t he document in Ihe fixed spacing mode. 



Insta-Writer 
Ver-1.0 



Microsci 

Corporation 



64 Commercial/Word A cartridge-based word processor which features 'insfanl-on' operation. 

Processing Features include the standard functions of a typewriter plus automatic 'word 

wrap', margins, lab stops, centering, underlining and bold face print. Text 
may be moved or duplicated anywhere among four display pages (screens) 
and most editing requires only one key stroke and 'on/off topjets facilitate 
operation. Up lo 99 pages may be saved in a document. 



Word Processor 



Optimized Data 
Systems 



64 Commercial/Word 
VIC Processing 

PET 



Provides document entry/edit/ print/tape storage functions for general use, 
Upper/lower case provided. Adjustable left/right margins. Save and retrieve 
named tape files. 



Word Controller 



Orbyte Software 



64 Commercial/Word This program provides all the features necessary to convert the Commo- 

Processing dore 64 into a complete and powerful word processing system. WORD 

CONTROLLER allows full live-screen editing with complete cursor control. 
Total format control enables the user to specify a multitude of formatting 
techniques including margins, tabs, paragraph justification (left or rigtit), 
text centering, columns and boundary markers. Word wrap is also available 
with this system. Page numbering can be automatically performed. Under- 
lining is also included. Insertions, deletions and exchanges are all possible 
in single character, complete line, paragraph or entire block capacity. 
Global search and replace also. 



Script 64 



Pacific Coasl 
Software 



64 Commercial/Word 
Processing 



SCRIPT 64 transforms your computer into a friendly yet sophisticated 40 
column word processor for home or business. This was designed to allow 
powerful test-editing capabilities without long hours of orientation or 
training. SCRIPT 64 offers features such as moving text within/between 
screens, global search and replace, superscripts and subscripts, automatic 
structured formatting, dictionary/spelling checker, help screens, small and 
large screens control maps that can be saved, true insert and delete modes, 
will hold 999 screens of text, merging with a mail list, automatic hyphena- 
tion and word stream. It is compatible with most printers and prinls through 
port to another computer. 



WordPro 3 

Plus/64 



Professional Software 
Inc. 



64 Commercial/Word 
Processing 



WORDPRO 3 PLUS/64, written for the Commodore 64, is a commercial 
fevel ward processor. 

Features include: Auto Page Numbering. Headers and Footers, Math 
Functions, Global Search and Replace, the Ability to Create Multiple 
Personalized Letters and Documents, Underlining, Boldface, Superscripts 
and Subscripts. 



Homeword 



Sierra On-Line Inc. 



64 Commercial/Word 
Processing 



This is a word processor program wilhout the convoluted manual or com- 
plicated commands. 

The instruction booklet is short and easy to read. Small pictures in Ihe pro- 
gram represent the many choices of writing and editing tools. They're the 
reason you don't have to wade through a thick manual. 



TOTL Text 



TOTL. Software 
Inc. 



64 Commercial/Word 
VIC Processing 



Turn your VIC 20 or Commodore 64 into a professional quality word 
processor when you use TOTLTEXT with CHICKSPEED. 
Have tbe speed and versatility to produce simple or complex documents, 
forms and letters: from a memo to a thesis. There are three versions of 
TOTLTEXT: 2.0 and 2.5 for VIC 20 and 2.6 for the Commodore 64. 



TSI Editor 



Type-Share 



64 Commercial/Word 
VIC Processing 

4032 Professional/Industries 

8032 Professional/Publishing 



A menu drive, line oriented editor for the typesetting application. 
Type- Share is a service bureau allowing computer users lo use their termi- 
nals as typesetting terminals. Through the manuals, one learns how lo 
embed typesetting commands into text files. Those files are then transmit- 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sepl./Oct. 1984 



69 



Name 



Vendor 



Computer Subjects 



Description 



ted over the telephone through CompuServe connection. The TSI Editor 
was written for the entire Commodore line ot computers and was designed 
to be easy to use. 



Wordform 



Landsoft 



4016 Commercial/Word Features: Right and left centering, inserting text, moving text, search and 

4032 Processing replace strings, auto page breaks and auto numbering, auto load of text 

8032 specified Irom previous text. Disk or cassette filing. Screen display equals 

8096 print-out. 



WordPro 3 Plus 



Professional 
Software Inc. 



4032 Commercial/Word WORDPRO 3 PLUS offers an exceptional text editing, document storage 

Processing and typewriter quality printing capability to any business whose needs 

would benefit from the increased productivity inherent to word processing 
and printing feature considered important to sophisticated word process- 
ing. Included are: global search and replace, math functions, superscripts/ 
subscripts and much more. Compared with other available systems, many 
of which cost up to twice as much as the system lhat WORDPRO 3 PLUS 
creates, it is unusually easy to learn and just as easy to operate. 



Textcas! II 



Cognitive 
Products 



PET Commercial/Word A word processor for 8K and larger machines, old or new ROMs. All 

Processing in machine language. Edil wilh tapes or disks in any combination. Produces 

ASCII files lhat can be used by other programs. Unfinished words a! the 
end of a line leap to the next line while you type. Powerful screen editor 
with full control over visible cursor. Repeat action on all keys and com- 
mands. Use printer in typewriter mode. Prints files with centering, under- 
lining, right justification, page numbers at lop or bottom. Set left margin 
and tine length. Transmits all NEC Spinwriter characters and commands. 



Data Management 
System (DMS) 



Compsofi Ltd. 



PET 



Commercial/Word 

Processing 
Systems/Compilers/ 

Interpreters 
Systems/Information 

Retrieval Systems 



Information, storage and retrieval, sorts, numeric calculations, link to Word 
processing. Links to Wondercraft, Wordpro, and Wordstar. Over 400 sys- 
tems have been sold lo a wide selection of businesses, stock control/client 
records, etc. 



PETword 



Creative 
Software 



PET Commercial/Word Complete word processor capable of upper/lower case, string search mar- 

Processing gin setting, centering, lext fill and justification and more. Complete PET 

word processor operates with either the CBM 20203 or 2023 printer. 
Capabilities include upper/lower case, string search and replace, margin 
setting, centering, automatic paging, text (III and justification, and many 
olher features found on commercial word processors. Manual is available 
separately lor $5.00 and may be applied toward purchase of program. 



Word Processor 



Databank 



PET Commercial/Word Wrile paragraphs of text and then correct or process the text to the required 

Processing line length. Store text on disk, load text from disk, use upper and lower 

case, use screen or printer etc. 



Block Renumber 



Supersoft 



PET Commercial/Word When you renumber a whole, your routines that you may have set in a 

Processing block apart from the rest, are sandwiched up together. This program re- 

numbers a block o! lines so that you can keep them apart. You can also 
keep your subroutines separated from the rest of the program. 



Large Letters 



Supersoft 



PET Commercial/Word A routine for incorporation into your program for generating large letters 

Processing onlo Ihe screen. 

Up to three, six letter words may be displayed at once. 



The Executive 



Dalaview Ltd 



8032 Commercial/Word 
8096 Processing 

Systems/Information 
Retrieval Systems 



The Executive combines two well-known and proven programs: 
WORDCRAFT and THE MANAGER. The Executive is invaluable in all sorts 
of applications where there is an amount of data that has lo be sorted, 
altered, deleted or expanded. 



WordPro 4 Plus 



Professional 
Software Inc. 



8032 Commercial/Word This is a high powered word processing program. 

Processing WORDPRO 4 PLUS, a slate of the art word processor, is Ihe best seller ol 

all Ihe word processors lor the Commodore computer. In addition to all 
of the features in WORDPRO 3 PLUS, WORDPRO 4 PLUS incorporates 
simultaneous input'output. output to video, and the ability to begin printing 
from any page in a long document. WORDPRO 4 PLUS also has the ability 
to create multi-user systems. For all its sophistication, however, WORDPRO 
4 PLUS is unusually easy to learn and just as easy lo operate. 



WordPro-ML 



Professional 
Software Inc. 



8032 Commercial/Word WORDPRO-ML is a multi-lingual version of the WordPro 4 Plus word 

8096 Processing processing program designed for the Commodore 8000 series. 

WORDPRO-ML gives the user access to word processing in five languages 
(English, German, French. Spanish and Italian) with just a lew easy key- 
strokes, The user can switch back and forth between languages without Ihe 
loss ol text in memory. The proper letters, symbols and accents in each of 
these languages will be displayed on the screen as well as appear in Ihe 
printed text. 



70 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



Database Management 



Name 



Vendor 



Computer Subjects 



Description 



The Consultant 



Batteries Included 



64 Systems/Database 

Management Systems 



The CONSULTANT is a powerful information handling program that allows 
you to enter, retrieve and update data with speed. This program features 
large record size (over 8000 characters), up to 99 fields and nine display 
pages per record. It includes report writer and mail label printing. You 
can design your own lorms on the screen or on printed reports. 
The CONSULTANT brings power and versatility usually found only in main- 
frame or minicomputer systems with provision for safeguarding accurate 
dala entry and excellent flexibility in searching for records. 



Power File 



City Software 



64 Systems/Database 

Management Systems 



POWER FILE is a database manager and personal filing system that is easy 
enough to use at home yel powerful enough for offices. Use Ihis program 
to organize your lists and records and create a personal filing system cus- 
tomized to your needs. POWER FILE will set up in electronic file in minutes, 
find any filed information in seconds. Cuslom reports will be printed out 
quickly and easily. II provides an easy merge of mail lists with form letters 
using a word processor, included are ready to run applications and instruc- 
tional sampie files so you can get the most from your system from day one. 
You can call HELP line anytime and will receive free update lists automati- 
cally without returning the original disks. 



The Manager 



Commodore 



64 Systems/Dataoase 

Management Systems 



THE MANAGER interfaces with word processing, accumulates totals on 
screen and creates subfiles. Sorts from any field. 



Codewriler 



Dynatech 

Microsoftware 



64 Systems/ Database 
6032 Management Systems 

B096 Systems/Information 
Retrieval Systems 



A plain English database design system thai includes report and menu 
generators. 

CODEWRITER allows micro users wilh no knowledge of program coding 
to write professional quality application suites in a few hours. Similarly 
programmers can produce bug-free programs quickly. The generated code 
is in BASIC and is easily accessed and modified and generates compre- 
hensive report programs. 



C-BIMS: Cassette 


W in dcrest Software 


64 


Systems/Database 


Based Information 


Inc. 


VIC 


Management Systems 


Management Syslem 




PET 





A unique dalabased management system that uses a cassette rather than 
the more expensive disk drive. 

The syslem allows powerful, highly flexible, user-defined management 
using only an upgrade ROM (BASIC 2 or BASIC 3) or BASIC 4 system with 
16K and one cassette drive. Complete and ready to run cassette contains all 
programs and subroutines featured in C-BIMS: Cassette Based Information 
Management System for ttie PET (Tab Book No. 1489), 



Mini Jini 


Jini Micro-Systems 


64 


Commercial/Time 




Inc. 


VIC 


Management 
Personal/Household 

Management 
Systems/Database 

Management Systems 


Insta-File 


Microsci Corporation 


64 


Systems/Database 


Ver-1.0 






Management Systems 



MINI JINI is a record keeper for home, school, club or office. This program 
will hold 50-500 records on tape or disk, The books, addresses and other 
data that you record will be in order. You can track appointments, meetings 
and valuables with this system- Do checkbook, class or sports statistics 
with MINI JINI. You can make lists for letter writing software. 



INSTA-FILE gives you the ability to design your own free form files using 
your TV screen as a visual "template" or model builder, All phases of creat- 
ing, editing, modifying and deleting files are supported with complete cur- 
sor control. A maximum of 500 records per file, 62 fields per record and 
30 characters per field can be implemented. Searching is supported by 
any field (string) using greater than, less than or equal to symbols. 
You may also "step through" (scroll) each file forward and reverse. 



Comm-File 



Orbyte Software 



64 Systems/ Database 

Management Systems 



COMM-FILE, beyond the information management basts, extends to 
encompass even greater capabilities. 

It contains an unrestricted number of files each with unlimited fields and 
field length so that each may hold as little or as much data as needed. 
These fields can be used by business executives, retail and service busi- 
ness owners, educators, tradesmen, domestic engineers, club and organi- 
zation officials, medical and legal professionals or anyone who needs to 
store any type of information. COMM-FILE also features an advanced con- 
cept in database management as it contains complete mathematical 
function abilities including addition, subtraction, multiplication, division 
and averages. 



File Pac 



Pacific Coast 
Software 



64 Systems/Database 

Management Systems 



FILE PAC allows the user to format File Input, Output and sorting of files. 
This program allows the user to format file input in the following ways: al- 
phabetic or numeric field input, up to 15 fields in a record and up to 200 
records in a file. FILE PAC allows the user lo formal file output in the tol- 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 71 



Name 



Vendor 



Computer Subjects 



Description 



lowing ways video or printer, printed page layoul, number of rows per 
page, number ol fields per row. It allows sorting ol tiles in tbe following 
ways: sequential listing ol tile contents, number sort and alphabetical sol. 



Inquire Pac 



Pacific Coast 
Software 



64 Systems/Database 

Management Systems 



This turns a Commodore 64 into a filer, containing its own editing com- 
mands to print pages in a report generation-style of operation. INQUIRE 
PAC features (till sorts and frue searches, up lo 200 records, conditional 
searches by up to 15 fields with optional sort on any one field at the same 
time, sorts on numeric threshold, disk and file directories, multiple delete 
function and deleted file collect. 



OmnifileVer-1 



Software to Go 



64 Systems/Database 
VIC Management Systems 



OMNIFILE is a (He manager that can be used tot inventories, mailing lists, 
collection and other information applications. The program provides plain 
language commands which make it easy to use. The report generating fea- 
ture. ANYREPDRT, gives you reports to fit special needs with four sort 
levels, counts, averages, totals and multiple conditions available. Ideal for 
applications in law, finance, medicine, marketing, and other professions. 
Up to fen key fields can be used. 



Rabbilbase 



Computer Software 
Associates 



ViC Systems/Database 

Management Systems 



RABB1TBASE is a dala file manager lor the Commodore VIC 20 with sim- 
ple screen instructions lor efficient use. 



Information 
Management 
System 



Tab Books Inc. 



VIC Systems/Database 
PET Managemenl Systems 



This program is a unique dafabased management system. It allows highly 
flexible, user-detined management using only an up grade ROM system 
with 16K. information Management System uses a single cassette player 
rather than the more expensive disk drive. 



Docu-Print 



Computer House 
Division 



PET Systems'Database 

Management Systems 



Prints anything on CRT out to printer. 

This is in BASIC and may be inserted in your program. 



F.E.T. Recover 4.0 



Computer House 
Division 



PET Systems'Database 

Management Systems 



File editing loots: examine data files, fix destroyed pointers, sectors may be 
read, modified, displayed or written, and rechained, Contains the following 
commands: GET T-S (Get track & sector into buffer), PUT T-S (Put buffer 
back lo track & sector), DISPLAY (Displays hex & characters of buffer), 
PRINT (Same as display on printer). FIND F (Finds file in directory), DRIVE 
I/O (Selects drive lo be used lor all subseouent commands), INIT (Initializes 
selected drive). Also MODIFY N-M, HMODIFY N-M, CHAIN N, and HUNT 
(finds beginning track and sector of all files in the directory). 



Screen-Dump/ 



Database Record 
Keeping System 



Computer House 
Division 



PET Systems/Database 

Management Systems 



This system will print anything on a CRT out lo the printer in machine 

language. 

Tbe plus repeat tealure allows the user to hold any key, inducing the cursor 

control keys, to repeat. This is similar to tbe repeat function on the 8032 

CBM computer. 



Scrunch-Plus 


Compuler House 
Division 


PET 


Systems'Database 
Management Systems 


Packs a program, saves up to 25% ol memory space- 


Sof-Bkup 2.0 


Computer House 
Division 


PET 


Systems/Database 
Management Systems 


Copy diskettes faster than Commodore's disk copy. Copy all allocated 

blocks including random files. 

Displays error messages tor ali bad blocks. 


Sorter 


Computer House 
Division 


PET 


Systems'Database 
Management Systems 


Sort; a one dimensional array alphabetically (in machine language). 


Super-Ram 


Compuler House 
Division 


PET 


Systems/Database 

Management Systems 


Diagnostic routine checks every passible RAM address against every olher 
address on 8K. 16K. or 32K CBM computers. 


Equipment Hire 


Alphabet Company 


PET 


Prolessional/lncusfries 
Systems/Database 
Management 


For maintaining records of up to 700 customers and 700 items on hire. 
System also maintains updates, billing, reminders, and files. 


Trace- Print 


Computer House 
Division 


PET 


Systems/Database 
Management Systems 


Prints listing of all line numbers in order of execution as program 
is operated. 


Vari Print 


Computer House 
Division 


PET 


Systems/Database 
Management Systems 


Prints a listing of all variables in your program alphabetically plus every 
line number where variable occurs. Also leaves space for Programmer to 
write in commenl or function ol each variable. 



Disk Dean Ltd. 



PET Systems/Database 

Managemenl Systems 
Systems/Information 
Retrieval System 



Extensive search list facilities and date character number and checking. 
Easily adapted to suit a specific specialized requirement and specialized 
adaptations service available. 



Progfile 


Qwerty Computer 
Systems 


PET 


Systems/Database 
Management Systems 


Organize your tapes, no program takes more than 3 minutes to find. 


PelaidVer-4+5 


Sosoft Ltd. 


PET 


Systems'Database 
Management Systems 


Basic programs structure and database manager with report generator. 



72 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



Name 


Vendor 


Computer 


Subjects 


Description 


Systems/Information 
Retrieval Systems 


Rexiile 


Total Control 
Software 


PET 


Systems/Database 
Management Systems 


A database management system that includes lists (or mailing labels and 
accounting reports. 



Inquiry/Mail'Word 



Computer House 
Division 



8032 Commercial/Mailing 
Lists 
Systems/ Database 
Management Systems 



A specialized database program. 25 fields which include: two names, street 
address, city, state, zip. phone, country. 

Database will also include main interest, credit, dale, ten keys and a 1600 
character remark (scratch pad). Search for exact match or any part or 
phrase in any field. Print any record or all records. Retains last len dates 
contacted. Sorts on up to any three fields simulianeously and prints labels. 
Also contains a small word processor which can sort on any three fields. 



Spreadsheets 



EasyCalc 



Commodore 



64 Commercial/ EASY CALC is easy to use with editing functions and help screens. Allows 

Spreadsheets bar charts and individually formatted tables. Features the viewing of lour 

pages al once on the screen. 



Calc Result Computer Marketing 64 Commercial/ CALC RESULT is a standard spreadsheet with added features to create a 

Services Inc. Spreadsheets useful planning tool. 

This program features a three dimensional spreadsheet with 32 pages of 63 
x 254 cells offering flexibility, graphic display on screen and printer, the 
ability to view as many as lour pages at once through a window and split 
screen (allowing you to compare spreadsheets). It will help lunction online 
to make CALC RESULT'S features easy to use. The color coordinated cells 
speed calculations. 'If Ihen else' with 'and', 'or' and 'not-else* functions in 
each cell give you unlimited possibilities for decision making. It has the 
ability to load VIS ICALC files. 

PractiCalc 64 Computer Software 64 Commerc ia I/ PRACTICALC 64 is the computer spreadsheet for the Commodore 64 with 

Associates Spreadsheets over 20 mathematical functions. This program has the ability lo graph, 

sort and search for entries. 

PS The Programmable Computer Software 64 Commercial/ PS is a computer spreadsheet lhat can handle the most complicated 

Spreadsheet Associates Spreadsheets operations within the structure o! a spreadsheet. You can program the 

PROGRAMMABLE SPREADSHEET with BASIC. 

A financial spreadsheet program for the Commodore 64. Wilh a step-by- 
step tutorial manual and computer created 'help' screens. INSTA-CALC 
features a maximum of 20 columns by 30 rows (600 cells) with protected 
formula cells to eliminate loss of data Oversized label field, ability to copy 
or move rows and columns and cell replication are standard features. Also, 
partial spreadsheets may tie extracted and overlayed Irom one spreadsheet 
to another. Up to 25 spreadsheets may be saved io a diskette. Bar and line 
graphing is available with INSTA-6RAPH. 



Insta-Calc 


Microsci Corporation 


64 


Commercial/ 


Ver-1.0 






Spreadsheets 
Personal/Finance 



Super Sase 64 



Precision Software 
Ltd. 



64 Commercial/ Key features ol SUPERBASE 64 include large record size (1000), up to 128 

Spreadsheets items per record, definable and redelinable record formats, fast key access 

Systems/Information wilh selective retrieval, transaction linking, spreadsheet calculation feature 

Retrieval Systems between record fields, calculator, Help screens and links to EASY SCRIPT 

word processor and EASY SPELL spelling checker on the 64. Popular 

applications are available 'off the shelf. 



PractiCalc 20 
PractiCalc Plus 

VersaCalc 



Computer Software VIC Commercial/ PRACTICALC 20 AND PRACTICALC PLUS are electronic spreadsheets that 

Associates Spreadsheets turn your Commodore VIC 20 into a business computer. 



Anthro-Digital 
Inc. 



PET Commercial/ Sorts VISICALC screens, allows creation of self-executing automatic 

Spreadsheets processing modules in VISICALC. 

VERSACALC consists of tutorial, utilities and file manager lo teach creative 
use of VISICALC functions which are documented poorly or no! at alt by 
Visicorp. User can automate VISICALC model processing, create help 
screens, sort VISICALC screens, print /SS. 



','! C?lc 



VisiCorp 



VisiCalc Business 
Financial Model 



VisiCorp 



PET Commercial/ Great lor analyzing alternatives and forecasting. VISICALC displays an 

Spreadsheets 'electronic worksheet that automatically calculates nearly any number of 

problems in finance, business management, marketing, sales, engineering 
and other areas. Huge worksheet is like a blank ledger sheel or matrix. 
Input problems by typing in titles, headings & numbers. All numbers 
affected are recalculated and new results are displayed. You can ask 
'what il?', analyzing more alternatives and forecasting more outcomes. 

PET Commercial/ This is a series ol interrelated VISICALC work sheets designed lo work with 

Spreadsheets the VISI CALC electronic spreadsheet program . 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept/Oct. 1984 73 



FLOPPY DISKS SALE *$1.19 ea. 

Economy Model or Cadillac Quality 



LORAH 



CfRnnsD « bsonai 

COMPUttR DISK 



We have the lowest prices! loran 



CSPllHED PtBSONAl 
COMPUIIPOSK 



* ECONOMY DISKS 

Good quality 5 'A " single sided single density with hub rings. 
Bulk Pac 100 Qty. $1.19 ea. 

10Qty. 1.39 ea. 



Total Price 
Total Price 



$119.00 
13.90 



CADILLAC QUALITY (double density) 

• Each disk certified • Free replacement litetime warranty • Automatic dust remover 

For those who want Cadillac quality we have the Loran Floppy Disk. Used by professionals because they can rely 
on Loran Disks to store important data and programs without fear of loss! Each Loran disk is 100% certified (an 
exclusive process) plus each disk carries an exclusive FREE REPLACEMENT LIFETIME WARRANTY. With Loran 
disks you can have the peace of mind without the frustration of program loss after hours spent in program 

development. 

100% CERTIFICATION TEST 

Some floppy disk manufacturers only sample test on a batch basis the disks they sell, and then claim they are 
certified. Each Loran disk is individually checked so you will never experience data or program loss during your 
lifetime! 

FREE REPLACEMENT LIFETIME WARRANTY 

We are so sure of Loran Disks that we give you a free replacement warranty against failure to perform due to faul- 
ty materials or workmanship for as long as you own your Loran disk 

AUTOMATIC DUST REMOVER 

Just like a record needle, disk drive heads must travel hundreds of miles over disk surfaces. Unlike other floppy 
disks the Loran smooth surface finish saves disk drive head wear during the life of the disk. (A rough surface will 
grind your disk drive head like sandpaper). The lint free automatic CLEANING LINER makes sure the disk-killers 
(dust & dirt) are being constantly cleaned while the disk is being operated. PLUS the Loran Disk has the highest 
probability rate of any other disk in the industry for storing and retaining data without loss for the life of the disk. 

Loran is definitely the Cadillac disk in the world 

Just to prove it even further, we are offering these super LOW INTRODUCTORY PRICES 
List S4.99 ea. INTRODUCTORY SALE PRICE $2.99 ea. (Box of 10 only) Total price $29.90 

$3.33 ea. (3 quantity) Total price $9.99 

All LORAN disks come with hub rings and sleeves in an attractive package. 



DISK DRIVE CLEANER s 19.95 



Everyone needs a disk drive doctor 
FACTS 

• 60% of all drive downtime is directly related to poorly maintained drives. 

• Drives should be cleaned each week regardless of use. 

• Drives are sensitive to smoke, dust and all micro particles. 

• Systematic operator performed maintenance is the best way of ensuring error free use of your computer | 
system. 

The Cheetah disk drive cleaner can be used with single or double sided 5%" disk drives. The Cheetah is an' 
easy to use fast method of maintaining efficient floppy diskette drive operation. 

The Cheetah cleaner comes with 2 disks and is packed in a protective plastic folder to prevent contamination. 
List $29.95/ Sale $19.95 * Coupon $16. ■» 



Add S3, 00 for shipping, handling ond insurance. Illinois residents 
please add 6% rax Add $6.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RICO. HAWAII. 
ALASKA, APO-FPO orders. Canadian orders musl be in U.S. dollars. 
WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES. 

Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 
days lor delivery. 7 to 7 days for phone orders. I day express mail ! 
VISA — MASTER CARD — C.O.D. 

No C.O.D. to Canada. APO-FPO 



ENTERPRIZES - ■ 

BOX 55.0. BAflRINGTON. ILLINOIS 60010 
Phont 312/382 5244 to order 



Circle Reader Service No. 14 



©SANYO MONITOR SALE!! 




80 Columns x 24 lines 
Green text display 
Easy to read - no eye strain 
Up front brightness control 
High resolution graphics 
Quick start - no preheating 
Regulated power supply 
Attractive metal cabinet 
UL and FCC approved 



9" Data Monitor 
12" Screen Amber or Green Text Dispiay $ 99 

» 15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty 



12" Hi-Resolution Amber or Green Screen Monitor $119.00 

this is a 1000 Line, 80 Column, High Resolution Monitor with crisp clear 
text that is easy to read! A must for Word Processing! Includes special 
Software Discount coupon. 
List $249.00 SALE $119.00 

14" Hi-Resolution Color Monitor $239.00 

This 14" color monitor has the sharpest and clearest resolution of any 
color monitor we have tested! Beautiful color contrast! Also compatible 
with video recorders. Includes special Software Discount coupon. 
List $349.00 SALE $239.00 



• LOWEST PRICES • 15 DAY FREE TRIAL • 90 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY 
• BEST SERVICE IN U.S.A. • ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL • OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS 



Add $10.00 for shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois residents 
pleotexpdd 6% tax. Add $20.00 for CANADA. PUEftTO RICO. HAWAII. 
ALASKA. APOFPO orders. Canadian order* muit be in U.5. dollars. 
WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES. 

Enclose Cashiers Chock Money- Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 
days for delivery. 2 to 7 days for phone orders, I day express mail 
VISA - MASTER CARD — C.O.D. 



ENTERPRIZES ,weioviouscu»tome«i 

BOX 550, BARRINQTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phon« 312/3*2-5244 to ordtr 



Circle Reader Service No. 14 



80 COLUMN PRINTER SALE— $149.00* 



COMSTAR T/F 



Tractor 
Friction 
Printer 



W 



** 



15 Day Free Trial -180 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty 



• Lowest Priced, Best Quality, Tractor-Friction Printers in the U.S.A. 

• Fast 80-120-160 Characters Per Second • 40, 46, 66, 80, 96, 132 Characters Per Line Spacing 

• Word Processing • Print Labels, Letters, Graphs and Tables • List Your Programs 

• Print Out Data from Modem Services • "The Most Important Accessory tor Your Computer" 



*STX-80 COLUMN 

PRINTER-S149.00 

Prints full 80 columns. Super silent 
operation, 60 CPS, prints Hi-resolution 
graphics and block graphics, expanded 
character set, exceptionally clear 
characters, fantastic print quality, uses 
inexpensive thermal paper! Best thermal 
printer in the U.S.A.! (Centronics Parallel 
Interface). 

"DELUXE COMSTAR T/F 
80 CPS PRINTER— $179.00 

The COMSTAR T/F (Tractor Friction) 
PRINTER is exceptionally versatile. It 
prints 8'A" x 11" standard size single 
sheet stationary or continuous feed com- 
puter paper. Bi-directional, impact dot 
matrix, 80 CPS, 224 characters. (Cen- 
tronics Parallel Interface). 

Premium Quality— 120 CPS 

COMSTAR T/F SUPER-10X 

PRINTER— $289.00 

COMSTAR T/F (Tractor Friction) SUPER- 
10X PRINTER gives you all the features 
of the COMSTAR T/F PRINTER plus a 
10" carriage, 120 CPS, 9 x 9 dot matrix 
with double strike capability for 16 x 16 
dot matrix (near letter quality), high 
resolution bit image (120 x 144 dot 
matrix), underlining, back spacing, left 
and right margin settings, true lower 
decenders with super and subscripts, 
prints standard, italic, block graphics 



and special characters, plus 2K of user 
definable characters! The COMSTAR T/F 
SUPER-10X PRINTER was Rated No. 1 by 
"Popular Science Magazine." It gives you 
print quality and features found on 
printers costing twice as much!! (Cen- 
tronics Parallel Interface) (Better than Ep- 
son FX 80). 

Premium Quality— 120 CPS 

COMSTAR T/F SUPER-15%" 

PRINTER-S379.00 

COMSTAR T/F SUPER 1SK" PRINTER 
has all the features of the COMSTAR T/F 
SUPER-10X PRINTER plus a 15V," car- 
riage and more powerful electronics 
components to handle large ledger 
business forms! (Better than Epson FX 
100). 

Superior Quality 

SUPER HIGH SPEED-160 CPS 

COMSTAR T/F 10" 

PRINTER-S399.00 

SUPER HIGH SPEED COMSTAR T/F 
(Tractor Friction) PRINTER has all the 
features of the COMSTAR SUPER-10X 
PRINTER plus SUPER HIGH SPEED 
PRINTING— 160 CPS, 100% duty cycle, 
8K buffer, diverse character fonts, 
special symbols and true decenders, ver- 
tical and horizontal tabs. RED HOT 
BUSINESS PRINTER a1 an unbelievable 
low price!! (Serial or Centronics Parallel 
Interface) 



Superior Quality 

SUPER HIGH SPEED— 160 CPS 

COMSTAR T/F 15V 

PRINTER— $529.00 

SUPER HIGH SPEED COMSTAR T/F 
15'A" PRINTER has all the features of the 
SUPER HIGH SPEED COMSTAR T/F 10" 
PRINTER plus a 15V carriage and more 
powerful electronics to handle larger 
ledger business forms! Exclusive bottom 
paper feed!! 



PARALLEL INTERFACES 
For VIC- 20 and COM-64— $69.00 
For Apple Computers— $79.00 

NOTE: Other printer interfaces 
available at computer stores! 



Double 

Immediate Replacement 

Warranty 

We have doubled the normal 90 day war- 
ranty to 180 days. Therefore if your 
printer fails within "180 days" from the 
date of purchase you simply sand your 
printer to us via United Parcel Service, 
prepaid. We will IMMEDIATELY send you 
a replacement printer at no charge, 
prepaid. This warranty, once again, 
proves that WE LOVE OUR 
CUSTOMERS! 



j 

Add $17.50 for shipping, handling and insurance. WE DO NOT EXPORT 
TO OTHER COUNTRIES EXCEPT CANADA. 

Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 days j 
for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day express mail! Canada 
orders must be In U.S. dollars. VISA - MASTER CARD ACCEPTED W" ' 
Ship C.O.D, 



We 



CMTpDppi f p C [WELOvEOUflCUSTOMERSI 

BOX 550, BARRINQTON, ILLINOIS 00010 

Phont 312/382-5244 to order 



SUPER-10" ABCDEFGHUKLMNOI 

ABCDEFGHIJKU1N0PQR8TUVWXYZ 1 2: 

Circle Reader Service No, 14 



QRSTUVWXY 
i4S67B90 



O Olympia 



EXECUTIVE LETTER QUALITY 
"DAISY WHEEL PRINTERS" 




Executive Letter Quality Printer 





Executive Letter Quality Printer/Typewriter 



World's Finest Computer Printer 

List Price $699 SALE $399 

• Daisywheel printer, bidirectional with special print 
enhancements. 

• Print speed up to 20 characters per second. 

• 10, 12, and 15 characters per inch. 

• 256 character print buffer, 

• 14.4" forms width, 

• Print line width: 115, 138, and 172 characters. 

• Serial RS-232-C and parallel Centronics interface 
ports built-in. 

• Built-in bidirectional forms tractor. 

• Operating status control panel. 

World's Finest 

"Combination" Printer/Typewriter 

List Price $799 SALE $489 

• Superb computer printer combined with world's finest 
electronic typewriter! 

• Better than IBM selectric — used by world's largest 
corporations! 

• Two machines in one — just a flick of the switch! 

• Superb letter quality correspondence — home, office, 
word processing! 

• Extra large carriage — allows 14-1/8" paper usage! 

• Drop in cassette ribbon — express lift off correction or 
eraser up to 46 characters! 

• Precision daisy wheel printing — many type styles! 

• Pitch selector — 10, 12, 15 CPS, Automatic relocate key! 

• Automatic margin control and setting! Key in buffer! 

• Electronic reliability, built in diagnostic test! 

• Centronics parallel interface built-in 



15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty 



Add $17.50 for shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois residents please 
add 6% tax. Add $35.00 for CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII. ALASKA. 
APA-FPO orders. Canadian orders must be in U.S. dollars. 
WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES. 

Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 days 
delivery, 2 to 7 days lor phone orders. 1 day express mail! 

VISA — MASTERCARD - C.O.D. 



Nq COD. to Canada. APO-FPO 



I 



COM 64 — VIC-20 INTERFACE 
APPLE INTERFACE 



$59.00 
S79.00 



IWE LOVEOURCUSTOMEBS! 



ENTERPRIZES 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON. ILLINOIS 60010 
Phone 312/382-5244 to ordtr 



Circle Reader Service No. 14 



understanding your computer programmers hps 



Cassette Files for 
PET/CBM 

By Robert Nicholas 

One of the nice features of the Commodore com- 
puters is their ability to create data files on cassette 
tape. I lowever, not much said about cassette files on 
the Commodore machines. Why? 

Probably the most obvious reason why we don't 
hear much about cassette data files is because disk 
files are so much more convenient, flexible, and 
faster to work with. But even though cassette files 
aren't as luxurious as disk files, they are still useful, 
especially if you can't yet afford disk drives. 

This article contains a program, written in Com- 
modore BASIC, that will develop cassette files. The 
program was originally designed and tested on a 
CBM 8032, but can be adapted to any Commodore 
computer with a minimal amount of effort. It will 
work on systems with one or two tape drives; with 
old or new ROMs. The program also provides a way 
to write punctuation to the tape, something that 
couldn't be done with cassette files. I made use of 
Joe Rotello's wonderful universal data entry routine 
to do this (see Commodore Magazine, March 1983, 
pages 60-63). That piece of code adapted beautifully 
to this application. 
The Program 

To get started, just key in the attached listing. 
Please note that it will be easier to enter the code if 
your CBM is in text mode (upper and lower case 
(alphabetic* ). 

Lines 10-50: Program header. 
Line 60: Clears the screen, gets needed values for 
the program, and puts the computer in graphics 
mode. A FOR-NEXT loop is included here, and in 
other places, to provide a slight time delay after the 
computer jumps from one mode to another (text 
to graphics or vice- versa). 

Lines 70-360: Draws the menu and branches to the 
choice selected (either CREATE A FILE, READ A FILE, 
or END THE PROGRAM). The graphics for the menu 
will have to be modified for 40-column machines. 
Line 390: Builds a maximum data length string for 
use with the data entry routine. Change the variable 
UM in line 10 7 to '39' for 40-column machines. 
Lines 400-460: Ask for a file name, a secondary 
address option, and drive. 



Lines 490 & 500: If your machine has old ROM's. 
remove the REM statements in front of these lines. 
The pokes will make sure the buffer pointers for the 
tape drives are initialized. 

Line 510: Opens the data file for writing to drive 
1 or 2. 

Line 520: Clears the screen and puts the computer 
in upper and lower case mode. 
Line 550: Prints the data to the file. The DS is a 
string of 79 characters long and is built up, character 
by character, by the data entry routine before it's 
written to tape. For 40-column machines, make sure 
the variable UM in Line 1070 is set to '39.' 
Lines 580 & 590: Again, if your machine has the 
old ROM's, include these lines. They provide a 
longer inter-record gap by turning on the cassette 
nx >n >rs for 0.1 seconds after every PRINT#. 
Line 620: Closes the file after writing. 
Lines 670-690: Ask for a file name and from which 
drive you want to read the file. 
Line 700: Opens the data file for reading from 
drive 1 or 2. 

Line 730: GETs each character of the file one at a 
time. The status variable (ST) is also checked to see 
if the end of the file was encountered. 
Lines 740 & 750: Check to see if an up arrow (f ) or 
a back arrow ( <-) are encountered. They are 
then substituted with a colon or comma. Normally, 
the colon and the comma cannot be written to tape, 
so the universal data entry routine checks for them 
and makes the appropriate substitution. 
Lines 810-840: Prompt you to hit the ESC key to 
return to the menu. 

Lines 850-1020: Contain Mr. Rotello's universal 
data entry routine, with slight modifications. The 
routine screens out all characters with ASCII codes 
between and 31 (except for DELETE), and those 
beyond 93- Due to the structure of the routine, the 
quotes (") aren't allowed. Also, as mentioned be- 
fore, the up arrow and the back arrow cannot be 
used because they are replacements for the colon 
( : ) and the comma ( ,), respectively. 
Lines 1040-1090: Define important variables the 
program will use. 



78 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS SepL'Oct. 1984 



After the program has been entered, type RUN. 
You should see a menu appear with three choices; 
CREATE A FILE, READ A FILE, and END THE PRO- 
GRAM. Use the SPACE bar to move the pointer to die 
option you wish to select, then hit RETURN. 

Creating a File 

When creating a file, the computer will ask you 
for a file name, a secondary address option, and to 
which drive you want the file written. The secondary 
address is intrinsic to the OPEN command, Choos- 
ing a T will write your file to tape normally; that is, 
with an end-of-file (EOF) marker following the file. 
Choosing a '2' will write an end-of-tape (EOT) 
marker in addition to an EOE 7 marker. This is useful 
if you don't want to put anything else on a particular 
cassette. If the computer is asked to read a particular 
file on a tape that doesn't contain it, and it comes 
across the EOT marker, the operation will abort 
and the computer will give you a ?FILE NOT 
FOUND message. 

When you hit RETURN after entering a line of 
data, that line is stored in the cassette buffer of drive 
1 or 2, depending on which was chosen to receive 
the data. The cassette buffers can hold 192 charac- 
ters each. When they are full, the data is written to 



the tape as a block. Don't type anything as the buffer 
is emptying because it won't be recorded. Wait until 
the cursor appears again before continuing to enter 
data. When you are finished, type an asterick (*)on 
a blank line to close the file. You will then be asked 
to hit the ESC key to return to the menu, whereupon 
you may choose another option. 

Reading a File 

To read a file you have created, enter its name and 
the drive it will be read from. Note that as the com- 
puter is searching for the file, it will not tell you die 
files it has encountered, as it does when searching 
for program files. When it has found the proper file, 
the computer will respond with FILE OPEN . . . and 
the contents of the file will be printed on the screen. 
If thf lata comes too fast to be read, or if it begins to 
scroll off the screen, you may press the STOP button 
on the tape drive when it's in between reads; that is, 
when the motor is off. The program will continue to 
ask for more data from the drive, so if the PLAY but- 
ton is not down, the computer will respond with a 
PRESS PLAY ON TAPE message. To continue reading 
in the data, just do as the computer says. When the 
EOF marker for the file is encountered, the file will 
be closed, and you can hit ESC to return to the. 



10 


REM* UNIVERSAL CASSETTE DATA FILE 


17fl 


PRINT TAB (33); " [DOWN] READ A FILE" 




DEVELOPER 


18fl 


PR I NT TAB ( 3 3 ) ; " [ DOW N ] 


2 " 


HE'\* PET/CBM 




END THE PROGRAM" 


■ C 


REM* OLD/NEW ROMS 


19.') 


PRINT TAB (17); "[DOWNS] USE THE 


>- 5 


RE*I* DESIGNED BY R. NICHOLAS 




[RVS] SPACE [RVOFF] BAR TO SELECT, 




REM* VERSION 2.0 5/23/34 




THEN HIT [RVS] RETURN [RVOFF] ." 


5;; 


.{j.-.. ****************************** 


200 


PRINT CHR$<7) ;CHR$(7) 


^o 


PRINT "[CLEAR] "; :GOSUB 1340 


210 


PRINT n tHOME,DOWN10,RIGHT29] "; 




sPRI.MT GS$;:FOR 1 = 1 TO IO0:NEXT 


220 


GET C$ 




:PDKE A5,P2 


2 3 


TF CC = "" THEN PRINT " — >[LEFT3]"; 


70 


HE-'. — MENU 


. 


:G0T0 2 20 


', o 


FOR I=A1 TO A2:P0KE I,P3:NEXT 


24 n 


IF C$=SPS THEN PRINT "[SPACE3, 


9fi 


FOR I=A2+8CJ TO A3 STEP 83 




LEFT31 "; 




:P0KE I,P3:NEXT 


250 


IF C$=CR$ GOTO 310 


i::: 


FOR r=A3-l TO A4 STEP -J 


25G 


IF C$=SP$ AMD LC=0 THEN LC=1 




:P0KE I,P3:NEXT 




: PRINT " [DOWN 2] ";:G0T0 228 


lit 


FOR I=A4-S0 TO Al + Sfl STEP -80 


2 7 n 


IF C$=SP$ AND LC=2 THEN LC = 




:POKE I, PI: NEXT 




: PRINT " [JP4! "; :G0T0 220 


12f 


PRINT TAB (15); " [RVS , SPACE2] 


2 no 


IF C$=SP$ AND LCO0 THEN LC=LC+1 




UNIVERSAL CASSETTE DATA FILE 




:PRINT " [D0WN2] " ; :GOTO 222 




DEVELOPER[SPACE2]/ r SPACE 2] V2 . 


290 


IF C$=SP$ AND LC<>2 THEN LC=LC+1 




TSPACE21 " 




: PRINT " [D0WN2] ";sGOTO 220 


i 30 


PRINT TAB(24) ; " r DOWN 2] 


300 


GOTO 2 20 




WHICH WOULD YOU LIKE TO CHOOSE?" 


310 


ON LC+1 GOTO 320,330,340 


1AC 


PRINT TAB (35); "[DOWN3JM E N U" 


3 20 


PRINT TAB (33) ; " [RVS] 


150 


PRINT TAB (36) ; "----" 




CREATE A FILE": FOR 1=1 TO 25 0: NEXT 


160 


PR I NT TAB ( 3 3 ) ; " [ DOWN ] 




:GOTO 3 50 




CREATE A FILE" 


330 


P-.I'JT TAB(33); "[RVS]READ A FILE" 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sepb'Oct. 1984 



79 



34 

3 50 

350 
370 

3 * ■' 

390 

4 B 
413 

420 

430 

440 

450 

4 50 
470 



4 50 
490 

510 
520 
530 



54C 

550 
55G 



570 

530 



590 

500 
G10 
628 
530 
640 
6 50 
660 
570 

630 

690 
700 



1 = ] TO 25t) 



POKE AS, PI 



:FOR 1=1 TO 253:NEXT:GOTO 350 

PRINT TAB (33) ; " [RVS] 

END T H E PROG RAM " : FOR 

: NEXT: GOTO 358 

PRINT " [CLEAR] " ;TS$; 

:FOR 1=1 TO 109:NEXT; 

DN LC+1 GOTO 370,650,1030 

PRINT TAB(3<1); "FILE CREATE" 

PRINT TAB(34); " [SHFT Ell]" 

FOR 1=1 TO UM:UE$=UB$+" [LEFT] " 

:NEXT 

INPUT " [DOWN2] ENTER FILE 

NAME...."; N$ 

PRINT "ENTER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING 

SECONDARY ADDRESS OPTIONS...." 

PRINT TAB (5); "[ DOWN , RVS ] 1 [ SPACE 2] 

-[5PACE2] NORMAL WRITE ( SPACE31 ] " 

PRINT TAB(5); " [ RVS ] 2 [ SPACE2] - 

[SPACE2] WRITE KITH END-OF-TAPE 

BLOCK FOLLOWING FI LE [ DOWN ] " 

INPUT 5A:IF SAO 1 AND SA<>2 GOTO 

4 40 

PRINT 

2)"; 

INPUT 



REM — NOTE: 



D: IF DOl AND 
INCLUDE 



DO 2 GOTO 
LINES 4 91) 



4 60 



IF YOUR MACHINE II 



500 ONLY 

EQUIPPED 

REM — WITH OLD ROMS. 

REM*IF D=l THEN POKE 243,122 

:POKE 244,2:GOTO 510 

REM*POKE 243, 53: POKE 244,3 

OPEN 1,D,SA,N$ 

PRINT " [CLEAR] ": POKE A5,P2 

PRINT "NOW TYPE DATA TO BE 

STORED. [SPACE?.] TYPE A [RVS]* 

fRVOFF] TO END THE FI LE . [ DOWN 2] " 

GOSUB 850 

PRINT»1,D$ 

REM — NOTE: INCLUDE LINES 530 & 

590 ONLY IF YOUR MACHINE IS 

EQUIPPED 

REM — WITH OLD ROMS. 

REM*IF D=l THEN POKE 59411,53 

:FOR 1=1 TO 100:NEXT:POKE 59411,5 

: GOTO 6 

REM*POKE 59455, 207:FOR 1=1 TO 100 

: NEXT: POKE 59456,223 

IF D3<>"*" GOTO 540 

PRINT " [DOWN] CLOSING FILE..." 

CLOSE 1 

GOSUB 810 

GOTO 70 

PRINT TAB (35); "FILE READ" 

TAB (35) ; " [SHFT £91 " 

1 [DOWN 2] ENTER FILE 

.."; N$ 

"READ FROM WHICH DRIVE (1 



710 

7 20 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 
780 
793 

8 00 
810 

3 20 
830 



840 
3 50 



370 



"WRITE TO WHICH DRIVE (1 OR 880 



390 
900 



[RVS] 
MENU, 



ESC [RV OFF] 

d 

• ■ * 

GOTO 3 20 
A5,P2 

ENTRY ROUTINE 

THEN PRINT " 
U1=0:UB=O 



PRINT 

INPUT 

NAME. . 

PRINT 

OR 2) " ; 

INPUT D: IF DOl 

OPEN 1,D,0,N$ 



91(1 

920 
9 30 
94 

9 50 

960 

970 
980 
990 
1 

1010 

1020 
1030 
104 

10 50 

I",'!!! 

1070 

10S0 



AND D<>2 GOTO 590 1090 



PRINT " [CLEAR] ": POKE A5,P2 

PRINT "FILE OPEN. . . [DOWN2] " 

GET»1,DS:IF ST AND 54 GOTO 780 

IF D$="[BACK ARROW]" THEN D$="," 

IF D$=" ["] " THEN D$=" : " 

PRINT D$; 

GOTO 73 

CLOSE 1 

GOSUB 810 

GOTO 70 

PRINT "(DOWN31HJT 

TO RETURN TO THE 
GET R$:IF R$OCHR$(27) 
PRINT " [CLEAR] ";GS$; 
:FOR 1 = 1 TO 100! NEXT :pOKE 
:LC = fi 
RETURN 

REM — UNIVERSAL DATA 
(BY JOE ROTELLO) 
DS = "" 

GOSUB 390: IF AB$="" 
[UP2] " :GOTO 860 
D$=LEFT$ (AB$+ACS,UM) 
:ABS="" : RETURN 
AB$ = "":FOR 1=1 TO 111: GET 
PRINT CU$(-V) " [LEFT] "; 
:FOR Z = TO 9:GET U1S 
:IF U1$=""THE.M NEXT:V=NOT V 
:GOTO 900 

U1=0:IF Ul$>"" THEN U1=ASC(U1$) 
AND 127:IF Ul=13 THEN PRINT " " 
: RETURN 

IF (UK 32 OR Ul>95) AND U1O20 OR 
Ul=34 OR Ul=94 OR Ul=95 GOTO 900 
UB=LEN(AB$) i s IF Ul = 20 AND UB<1 
GOTO 900 

IF Ul=20 AND UB=1 THEN PRINT " 
[RVOFF] [LEFT] [ LEFT] ";: GOTO 390 
IF lU=2fl THEN AB$=LBFTC (ABS,UB-1) 
: PRINT "[RVOFF] [LEFT] [LEFT]"; 
:GOTO 900 

IF LJB=»UM-6 THEN PRINT CHR$(7); 
CHRS(7) ; 

IF UB=UM GOTO 9 00 
PRINT Ul$; 
IF Ul=44 THEN U1$="[BACK ARROW]" 

IF Ul=53 THEN Ul$=" ["] " 

AB$=AB$+U1S: IF UM=1 THEN PRINT " 

" : RETURN 

GOTO 900 

END 

REM — TABLE OF VARIABLES & 

CONSTANTS 

TSS=CHR$(14) :GS$=CHR$ (14 2) 

CR$=CHRS(13) :SPt=CHR$(32) :LC=0 

CU$(0)=CHRS (175) :CU6 (1)=CHRS(32) 

:UM=79 

Al=3276S:A2=32o4 7:A3=3 4 7 67 

:A4=34S88:A5=59468 

Pl=l 2 :P2=14:P3=102: RETURN 



80 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



Random Thoughts (Continued From Page 35) 

Random Video Art 

Even on the smallest computers like the Commo- 
dore VIC or the ancient 4K PET, you can produce 
fascinating dynamic video art if you use random fac- 
tors wisely, I'll give full details of one very simple 
program, Zigzag and outline the structure of another, 
Snake. I hope that you will take the concept and go 
on to bigger and better programs yourself. 

Zigzag produces ever-changing op art patterns on 
the screen. It uses the graphics symbols found on 
the M and N keys on the Commodore home com- 
puters. These symbols will be shown as [shift-M] 
and [shift-N] in the listings here. They correspond to 
backwards slash and slash symbols which fill the full 
height of the character cell on the screen. 

The first, and quite nice, version of Zigzag is just: 



5 


AS=" 


[shift- 


-MJ": 


IF 


RND(1X.5 


THEN 




A$=" 


[shift- 


-Nj" 










10 


FOR . 


[=1 TO 


1+40 J 


*RND(1): 


PRINT 






AZf>f • 


NEXT I 










15 


30T0 


5 













Try it! I think you'll enjoy the effect for quite awhile. 

When the simple Zigzag gets tiresome, move to 
a slightly" higher level of randomness. The constant 
average length of the loop in line 10 gets predicta- 
ble. Make it variable, within a controlled random 
distribution, with the following: 



3 


X=1+8Q*RND(1): 


FOR 


J=l 


TO 






I+40*RND(1) 












5 


A$=" 


t shift- 


-M ] " 


; IF 


RND .(1)<. 5 


THEN 




AS=" 


[shift- 


-N j " 










10 


FOR : 


[=1 TO 


i+x- 1 


>RND(1) : 


PRINT 


A4, | * 




NEXT 


I 












15 


NEXT 


J 












20 


SOTO 


3 













This program changes the inner loop of the orig- 
inal Zigzag by replacing the constant 40 with X, a 
random number between one and 81. It also has a 
memory in that it repeats the lines 5 and 10 a ran- 
dom number of times (the J loop) before changing 
to a new value of X. So, for awhile, the display is 
really jagged and chaotic. Then, randomly, there are 
patches of longrange order. That makes for a varied 
and attractive display. 

You can imagine further extensions of Zigzag to 



still higher levels of randomness. Perhaps changing 
the graphics characters to other symbols which fit 
together nicely would be worthwhile. Or perhaps 
keeping more of a memory from row to row of the 
display would help. 

Snake is an example of such an extension in a dif- 
ferent direction. The program is only 20 or so lines 
long in BASIC, but it's easier to describe in words. 
(If there is a great outcry, I'll print a listing in a fu- 
ture column.) Snake uses the graphics symbols 
found on the U, I, J and K keys, little 90-degree arcs 
of circles, in addition to the straight line symbols 
found on @ and ]. The basic visual effect is that of 
a snake leaving a wild trail as it slithers around 
the screen. 

Inside Snake, I define strings using graphics 
symbols and cursor control characters to draw 
lines up, down, left and right. I also define strings 
to make smooth curves around corners: up-to-right, 
up-to-left, left-to-down, etc., (eight possible corners). 
Then, randomly, I let the snake run straight, turn 
90 degrees clockwise or turn 90 degrees counter- 
clockwise, each with equal probability of one third. 

The result is a pleasing visual pattern that con- 
stantly grows new details. By using direct PRINT 
statements and cursor control characters, there is 
no problem with going off the edge of the screen. 
When the snake tries to go off the top, it just doesn't 
move. Going off left or right edges makes it reap- 
pear on the opposite side. Going off the bottom 
scrolls the screen image up, giving new blank area 
for the image to develop. 

Watching Snake is a lot like watching clouds. If 
you have enough imagination, you can see faces, 
animal shapes, maps of continents and so on. It's al- 
ways new because of the controlled randomness in 
the pattern of the snake's motions. I've added some 
simple sound commands which give audio accom- 
paniment, too. 

In Times to Come 

The concept of levels of randomness is a very 
powerful one, which we will explore further in 
future columns. One of the ways to quantify ran- 
domness is by looking at the spectrum of random 
fluctuations that a given distribution produces. It's 
just like the spectrum of light that a prism (or a 
rainbow) displays or like the audio spectrum that 
a spectral analyzer or graphic equalizer can display. 
Random noise can be white, pink or something else. 
We'll talk about that and more next time! C 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1964 81 



understanding your computer programmers hps 



Two High-Resolution Screen Dumps 
for the Commodore 64 



Use these programs with your Commodore 64, 
1541 disk drive and Commodore dot-matrix 
printer to print out higb-res graphics you've 
created with LOGO, the KoalaPad or using the 
standard Kernal SAVE routine. 

Utility for the 1515, 1525, 
and MPS-801 Printers 

By Steve Beats, Commodore Software 

This program was originally created to speed up 
screen dumps from LOGO, which normally can take 
up to 20 minutes. Using this program those same 
screens can be dumped in about two minutes. But 
we've now added a few touches that also allow you 
to use the program to dump screens you've saved 
from the KoalaPad or screens you've saved using 
the good old standard Kernal routines, as well. 

To use the programs, first type in Listing 1 and 
save it onto a formatted disk. Make sure you get all 
the data statements correct or the finished program 
will not work. When you have typed in this program 
and saved it, just type RUN and it will generate a 
machine code file named L10.BIN on the disk. 
This machine code file is used by the program 
in Listing 2. 

Next type in the program in Listing 2 and save it 
onto the same disk as Listing 1. You can give this 
program any name you like except for L10.BIN. 

Use this program as is to dump LOGO screens. 
To use it to dump Koala screens put a REM at the 



beginning of line 171 and take out the REM at the 
beginning of line 170. To use it to dump standard 
Kernal screens put a REM in line 171 and leave the 
REM in line 170. 

To use the program, simply load the program you 
typed in from Listing 2 and run it. The machine code 
section will be loaded in automatically. When the 
program asks you for the name of the file to print, 
just enter the name you used to save the picture 
screen. (If the screen is saved on a separate disk, 
remember to put that disk in the drive, first.) 

After the screen has been loaded from disk you 
will be asked to position the paper and press the 
space bar to start the printing. Once the picture 
has been printed you can produce another copy by 
answering "Y" to the "ANOTHER COPY?" prompt. 

Utility for the 1526 Printer 

By John McKean 

The program in Listing 3 allows you to dump the 
high-res screens you saved from LOGO, Koala or 
the standard Kernal routines using your 1526 printer. 

To use the program for LOGO screens remove 
the REM. in line 3001. For Koala screens remove the 
REM in line 3002. For standard screens, use it as is. 

First, of course, type and save the program. To use 
it, just run the program and enter the name of the 
picture screen. 

It takes about ten minutes for the printer to grind 
out a finished copy. But it's worth the wait. 



Listing 1. 






10 REM PROGRAM TO GENERATE A BINARY 


80 


3EM UTILITY. 


FILE 


90 




20 REM ON A FORMATTED 1541 DISK 


102 


POKE 53281, 0:PQKE 53280,0 


30 : 




:POKE 64(5,1 


40 REM THE DATA PRESENTED HERE WILL 


110 


PRINT" [CLEAR] PLEASE INSERT THE 


GENERATE 




DISK WITH THE BASIC 


50 REM THE MACHINE CCODE PROGRAM 


120 


PRINT" [DOWN] PART OF THIS SCREEN 


CALLED L10.BIN 




DUMP UTILITY INTO 


ifl REM SO THAT IT CAN Bi DIRECTLY 


130 


PRINT" [DOWNJTHE DISK DRIVE AND 


LOADED IN BY 




PRESS THE SPACE BAR 


70 REM THE BASIC SECTION OF THIS 


135 


£ 


SCREEN DUMP 


140 


GET A$:IF A$<>" "THEN 140 



82 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



150 
160 

170 

183 

190 

20G 

213 

220 

230 

240 
250 

260 

270 

28 

290 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

10 4 

1050 

3 ^6 3 
1070 

1080 

1090 

1100 



:REM WAIT FOR SPACE BAR 

OPEN 15, 8, 15," 10" 

:REM INITIALISE DISK 

PRINT|tl5,"Sfi:L10.BIN" 

:REM MAKE SURE FILE IS NOT THERE 

CLOSE 15 

:REH EVERYTHING IS READY 

OPEN 3,8, 3, "L10. BIN, P,W" 

:REM OPEN PROGRAM FOR WRITE 

PRINTS8,CHR$(0)CHR$(112) ; 

:REM START ADDRESS U700G) 

READ A 

:REM GET A BYTE OF ML 

IF A<0 THEN 240 

:REM GOT TO END OF DATA 

PRINT#8,CHR$(A) ; 

:REM WRITE OUT THE DATA 

GOTO 200 

:REM AND REPEAT UNTIL THE END 

CLOSE 8 

END 



DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

160 

DATA 

DATA 

251 

DATA 

230 

DATA 

169 

DATA 



76,9,112,76,4 3,112,76,79 

112,162,0,142,183,2,169,128 

141,184,2,24,189,183,2,105 

64,157,185,2,189,184,2,105 

1,157,186,2,232,232,2 24,50 

208,233,96,169,128,133,252, 

0,132,251,32,204,255,162,8 
32,198,255,32,228,255,14 5, 

165,144,208,7,20 0,208,24 4, 

252,208,240,32, 204, 255,96 > 

0,141,170,2,32,204,255,162 



1110 
1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1160 
1170 
1180 
1193 
1200 
121R 
1220 
1230 
1240 
1250 
126 
1270 

1280 

1290 
1300 
1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 
1380 
139 
1400 
1410 

1420 
1430 

1440 
1450 
1460 
1470 



DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

175 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

167 

DATA 

DATA 

173 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 



4,32, 
2,32, 
2,141 

170,2 
10,10 
141,1 
169,7 
141,1 
2,238 
242,5 
174,1 
2,208 
2,208 
41,12 
176,2 
141,1 
32,21 

2,201 

176,2 
177,2 
238,1 
240,3 
176,2 
210,2 
201,2 
15,32 
168,2 
64,14 
201,2 
74,41 
251,1 



201,255,1 
210,255,1 
,168,2,14 
,141,175, 
,139,170, 
75,2,159, 
,141,173, 
69,2,32,3 
,169,2,20 
6,110,174 
72,2,157, 
,3,238,16 
,205,162, 
7,208,26, 
,201,15,2 
76,2,32, 2 
0,255,76, 



69,15, 
69,0,1 
1,171, 
2,14,1 
2,109, 
6,141, 
2,173, 
9,113, 
6,173, 
,2,173 
176,2, 
8,2,20 
5,189, 
202,16 
40,8,1 
10,255 
248,11 



141,176 

41,167 

2,173 

75,2 

175,2 

172,2 

175,2 

110,174 

2,208 

,174,2 

238,167 

6,172 

177,2 

,246,173 

69,15 

,169,32 

2,173, 



,8,240 
,32,21 

f J C. f C, J. 

71,2,1 
,76,13 
,32,21 
55,238 
9,240, 
,210,2 
,240,9 
4,2,24 
00,176 
,254,1 
89,184 



,8,16 
0,255 
0,255 
73,17 
1,112 
0,255 
,170, 
3,76, 
55,76 
,173, 
,96,1 
,247, 
70,18 
,2,13 



9,8,1 
,162, 
,202, 
1,2,2 
,169, 
,169, 
2,173 
100,1 
,204, 
167,2 
73,16 
173,1 
9,183 
3,252 



41 

5,189 

16,247 

01,54 

8,141 

13,32 

,170,2 

12,169 

255,173 

,201 

9,2 

69,2,74 

,2,133 

,173, 



2,41,248,24,101,251,133,2 51 

173,168,2,101,252,133,252, 

169,2,41,7,168,173,167,2 
41,7,170,177,251,61,116,113 
240,193,56,96,128,64,32,16 
0,4,2,1,-1 



1525 Dump 



10 REM 
20 REM 
33 REM 
40 REM 
50 REM 
60 REM 
7 REM 
80 REM 
90 : 
100 IF 
110 PRIN 

120 LOAD 
130 POKE 

:REM 
140 MC=7 

:REM 
150 SYS 

:REM 



*************************** 

* 

LOGO SCREEN DUMP UTILITY * 

WRITTEN BY STEVE BEATS * 

BASED ON AN IDEA BY * 

TOM ZIEGLER * 

* 
*************************** 

EEK(7*4096)=76 THEN 130 

T" [CLEAR] LOADING MACHINE CODE 

PLEASE WAIT" 

"L10.BIN",8,1 

56,112:CLR 

PROTECT MACHINE CODE 
*409S 

ADDRESS OF MACHINE CODE 
MC 

SET UP POINTERS ETC. 



160 INPUT" [CLEAR] NAME OF FILE TO 
PRINT" ;A$ 

170 C3=CHR$(129) :IF LEN{A$)<14 THEN 
A$=A$+LEPT$ (" [SPACE9] " ,14-LEN(A$) ) 

171 REM *LOGO*:CS="":IFRIGHT$(A$, 
5) <>".PIC1"THENA$=A$ + , '.PIC1" 

180 OPEN 15, 8, 15, "10" 

:REM INITIALISE DRIVE 
190 OPEN 8,3,8,C$+A$+",P,R" 

:REM CHECK FILE IS THERE 
200 INPUTS 15,EN,ER$,TR,SE 
210 IF EN=0 THEN 260 

:REM FILE IS THERE OK 
220 PRINT EN;ER$:PRINT" [DOWN] 

DISK ERROR. PRESS SPACE TO 

CONTINUE" 
230 CLOSE 8:CLOSE IS 

:REM CLOSE FILES FOR NEXT TIME 

AROUND 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 83 



240 


GET AS: IF A$<>" "THEN 240 


3 30 


GET B$:IF B$<>"P"THEN 330 


250 


GOTO 160 


340 


OPEN 4,4:PRIHT*4:CLOSE 4 




:REM TRY AGAIN 


350 


IF ST=-123 THEN PRINT" [DOWN] 


260 


GET#8,B$,C$ 




PRINTER IS NOT SWITCHED ON" 




:REH STRIP OFF THE START ADDRESS 




:FOR 1=1 TO 2d 0:NEXT:GOTO 330 


270 


PRINT" [DOWN] LOADING FILE. PLEASE 


360 


OPEN 4,4:SYS MC+6 




WAIT" 




:REM GO AND PRINT THE PICTURE 


280 


SYS *!C+3 


370 


CLOSE 4 :REM ALL DONE 




:REM GO AND LOAD IN THE DATA 


380 


PRINT" [CLEAR, DOWN2] 


290 


CLOSE 8: CLOSE 15 




ANOTHER COPY ? (Y/N) " 




:REM ALL LOADED NOW 


390 


GET B$:IF B$<>"Y"AND B$<>"N"THEN 


300 


PRINT" [CLEAR, DOWN] 




390 




"AS" IS NOW IN MEMORY" 


400 


IF BS="Y"THEN 300 


310 


PRINT" [DOWN] POSITION PAPER AND 




:REM GO DO ANOTHER COPY 




PRESS 'P' TO PRINT" 


410 


END 



1526 Dump 



300P 
3001 

3002 



3010 



4000 

4001 

4 002 

4005 
4015 
4019 
4024 
4025 
4023 
4036 
4032 

4034 
4036 
4038 
4040 
4 04 2 
4044 
4046 

4048 



4050 
5000 
5002 

5003 
5304 

5008 



C$=CS1R$(129) :INPUT"FILENAME";A$ 

REM *LOGO*: IFRIGHTS(A$, 

5) <>".PIC1"THENAS = AS + ".PIC1 , ' 

REM *KOALA*:A$=C$+A$ 

: IFLEN (AS) <1 5THENAS=AS+LEFTS (" 

[SPACE9] ",15-LEN (AS) } 

FOR X=l TO LEN(AS) 

:POKE 49151+X,ASC(MID$(AS,X, 1) ) 

:NEXT X:POKE X,0 

POKE 780,5:POKE 781,8:POKE 782,0 

:SYS 65466 

POKE 780,LEN(A$) :POKE 731,0 

:POKE 7G2,192:SYS 65469 

POKE 780,O:POKE 781,f):POKE 782,32 

:SYS 65493 

POKE 52, 3 2. -POKE 5G,32 

OPEN 5, 4, 5: OPEN 4,4 

COUNTER=0:BASE=819 2:GOSUB 5000 

FOR BYTE = TO 7 

A = PEEK(HASE+BYTE) 

POKE 965+BYTE,A 

NEXT 

BASE=BASE+8:IF BASE>16192 THEN 

CLOSE 4:CLOSE 5 : END 

AS="":SYS 823 

FOR BYTE = TO 7 

A = PEEK(973+BYTE) 

AS=A$+CHR$ (A) 

NEXT 

PRINTjf5,AS 

PRINT! 4 , TAB (COUNTER) CURS ( 254) 

CHRS(141) ; 

C0UNTER=C0UNTER+1 

:IF COUNTER=40 THEN PRINT&4, 

CHR$(13) :COUNTBR=0 

GOTO 4024 

REM 

OPEN 6,4,6:PRINTf 6,CHRS(10) 

: CLOSE 6 

B=0:FOR DE=823 TO 930 

READ A 

POKE DE,A:B=3+A 

NEXT 



5010 

5012 
S000 

6010 

6020 
6030 
6040 
6050 
6060 
6070 
60 80 
'.090 
6100 
6110 
6120 
6130 
6140 
6150 
5160 
6170 
6180 
•'190 



IF B 

DATA 

RETU 

DATA 

DATA 

196 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 



O17120 THEN PRINT"ERROR IN 
STATEMENTS": END 

RN 
162,7,169,0,157,205,3,20 2 
224,255,208,24 8,169,128,141, 



3,1'2,0, 

10,157,1 

192,8,24 

0,224,1, 

31,224,3 

37,224,5 

43,224,7 

49,169,6 

169,32,1 

16,141,1 

141,196, 

196,3,20 

3,203,16 

208,155, 

3,109,19 



0,0,0,0, 

0,0,0,0, 



160,0, 
97,3,3 
0,2,20 
240,28 
,240,3 
,240,4 
,240,4 
4,141, 
41,196 
96,3,2 
3,238, 
8,169, 
2,169, 
96,144 
6,3,15 



189,1 
2,183 

8,239 
,224, 
4,224 
0,224 
5,224 
196,3 
,3,20 
08,18 
176,1 
169,2 
1,141 
,10,2 
3,205 



97,3 

,3,290 

,232,160 

2,243 

,4,240 

,6,240 

,8,240 

,208,197 

8,190,169 

3,169,8 

69,4,141 

,141,196 

,196,3 

4,185,205 

,3,95 



e,o,o,;> 

0,0,0,0 

I* 



84 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 




understanding your computer programmer's hps 



Kaleidoscope for the 
PET and Commodore 64 



By Jerry A. Sturdivant 

This program creates, smooth 
flowing, ever changing psycholog- 
ically pleasing designs and quite a 
surprise if you hit the STOP key. If 
the designs become too involved, 
you can push the space bar. Or, 
after about 15 seconds, the screen 
will clear itself. The program is a 
continually running art display. 

The program puts a random de- 
sign in the upper left quarter of 
the screen. The other three quar- 
ters of the screen are, like our 
childhood kaleidoscopes, a mirror 
reflection. Well, not a perfect re- 
flection; if you were to type the let- 
ter E, the pointy parts would still 
point to the right. For that reason, 
the items sent to the screen are 
symmetrical. 

The interrupt is directed 
through the machine language 
portion of the program. It creates 
the three mirror images. 

You can change the items that 
print to the screen by placing 

Kaleidoscope PET 



them between the quotes in line 
170. If you change the number of 
characters between the quotes, 
enter the number in the paren- 
thesis following FNR. You can 
create softer designs with a larger 
number in the parentheses in 
line 160. 

While the program is running, 
you can start a new design by 
pressing the space bar or STOP 
the program by hitting S, But if 
you hit the STOP key instead, 
you're in for surprise — four cur- 
sors! Move the cursors around or 
type your name and you will see 
the mirror effect. Any commands 
you wish to enter must be fol- 
lowed by a colon or the computer 
will try to use the mirror image 
(restart the program again with 
RUN: and don't forget the colon). 

Operation 

Line 100 is used for all the ran- 
dom numbers. Line 130 picks a 



random location in the upper left 
screen quarter for a starting place. 
Lines 140 and 150 watch for key- 
board inputs. Line 160 decides 
the length of a design. Line 170 
picks one of the characters. Line 
180 picks a number for a direction 
(be careful when entering the 
spaces). Line 210 checks to see if 
the POKEs are going out of the 
screen quadrant to the right. 220 
checks the vertical boundaries. 
For the Commodore 64, line 105 
turns the screen black. Line 165 
picks a color and 225 POKEs it in. 
If you think the program would 
look better at a faster speed, fol- 
low the instructions on the last 
program line. Remove the REM 
from line 235 and insert a REM at 
the beginning of lines 330 and 
340. This will change the opera- 
tions to SYS rather than being 
interrupt driven. However, you 
will lose the four-cursor effect. 



1(5 REM KALEIDOSCOPE 

20 REM BY JERRY STURDIVANT 

30 REM 

40 PRINT" [CLEAR] "TAB (12) "KALEIDOSCOPE 

[DOXN2] 
50 PRINT" [SPACE'S] HIT SPACE BA.R TO 

CLEAR SCREEN [DOWN] 
60 PRINT" [SPACE4] HIT ' S' TO STOPfDOWN] 
70 PRINT" [SPACE4] HIT SPACE BAR TO 

START 
80 GET AS:IF A$ = ""THEN 80 
90 PRINT" [CLEAR, D0WN8] "TAB (15) "LOADING 
100 DEF FN R(X)=INT(X*RND(1) +1) 
110 GOSUB 300 
120 PRINT" [CLEAR] ":T=TI 
130 S=32768+FN R(459) 



140 IF PEEK(151)=83 THEN POKE 145,228 

:STOP 
150 IF PEEK(151)<>255 THEN 120 
160 L=FN R(12) 
170 e=ASC(MID$("f>(?@@ [SPACE4]QWf *Z" , 

FN R(13) ,1) ) 
180 D=VAL(MID$("-39[SPACE2] 

1 41 40 39 -1-41-40", FN R(8)*3-2, 

3)) 
190 FOR 1=1 TO L 
200 S=S+D 
210 IF( (S-8)/4 0-INT( (S-8)/4 0) ) *40>19 

THEN 130 
220 IF S>33247 OR S<32768 THEN 130 
230 POKE S,C 
235 REM SYS 3413 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



85 



240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 

340 
350 
360 



370 



NEXT 

IF TI-T>903 THEN 120 

GOTO 140 

REM 

REM ** POKE MACHINE CODE ** 

REM 

FOR 1=3413 TO 3548 

READ A:POKE I,A:B=B+A 

NEXT 

IF B-13824 THEN PRINT "BAD DATA" 

:STOP 

POKE 145,13 

RETURN 

DATA 162,0,160,20,189,0,128,153, 

19,128,157,152,131,153,171,131, 

232,136,192 

DATA 0,208, 238, 24, 169,40*109,90, 

13,141,90,13,173,91,13,105,0,141, 

91,13,24 



380 DATA 169,40,109,93,13,141,93,13, 

173,94,13,105,0,141,94,13,56,173, 

96,13,233 
390 DATA 40,141,96,13,173,97,13,233,0, 

141, 97, 13, 55, 173, 99, 13, 233, 40, 141, 

99,13 
400 DATA 173,100,13,233,0,141,100,13, 

17 3,99,13,201,20 3,208,159,169,128, 

141,91 
410 DATA 13,141,94,13,169,131,141,97, 

13,141,100,13,169,0,141,90,13,169, 

19,141 
420 DATA 93,13,169,152,141,96,13,169, 

171,141,99,13,76,85,228 
430 REM CHANGE 76 (DATA LINE 420) TO 

A 96, AND 
440 REM 'REM' OUT LINES 330 & 340 FOR 

SPEED 



Kaleidoscope 64 



10 REM KALEIDOSCOPE 

20 REM BY JERRY STURDIVANT 

30 REM 

40 PRINT" [CLEAR] "TAB (12) "KALEIDOSCOPE 

[DOWN 2] 
50 PRINT" [SPACE4] HIT SPACE BAR TO 

CLEAR SCREEN [DOWN] 
60 PRINT" [SPACE4] HIT 'S' TO STOP[D0WN] 
70 PRINT" [SPACE4] HIT SPACE BAR TO 

START 
80 GET AS:IF A$=""THEN 80 
90 PRINT" [CLEAR, DOWN31 "TAB (15) "LOADING 
100 DEF FN R(X)=INT(X*RND(1)+1) 
105 POKE 53230, 0:POKE 53231,0 
110 GOSUB 300 
120 PRINT" [CLEAR] " : T = TI 
130 S=1024+FN R(459) 
140 IF PEEK(203)=13 THEM POKE 789,234 

:STOP 
150 IF PEEK(203)<>54 THEN 120 
160 L=FN R(12) 
165 K=VAL(MID$(" 123456 78 

9101314", FN R(12)*2-l,2) ) 
170 C=ASC(MID$("990g[SPACE4]Q22W*" , 

FN R(13),l)) 
180 D=VAL(MID$("-39[SPAC£2] 

1 41 40 39 -1-41-40", FN R(8)*3-2,3)) 
190 FOR 1=1 TO L 
200 S=S+D 
210 IF( (S+16)/4 0-INT( (S+16)/4C) ) 

*4D>19 THEN 130 
220 IF S>1503 OR S<1024 THEN 130 
225 POKE 54272+S.K 
230 POKE S,C 
235 REM SYS 8753 
240 NEXT 

250 IF TI-T>303 THEN 120 
260 GOTO 140 
270 REM 
2S0 REM ** POKE MACHINE LANGUAGE ** 

290 REM 

300 FOR 1=8753 TO 9022 



310 
320 
330 
340 

350 
360 

370 



380 

390 
40n 
410 

420 

430 

440 

450 

460 
470 
480 

490 

500 

510 



READ A:POKE 

NEXT 

IF B-29847 

POKE 789,34 

RETURN 

DATA 162,0, 

157,152,7,1 

DATA 238,24 

54,34,173,5 

24,169,40 

DATA 109,57 

34,105,0,14 

233,40,141 

DATA 60,34, 

55,173,63,3 

DATA 34,23 3 

203,208,159 

DATA 3 4,169 

159,0,141,5 

169,152 

DATA 141,60 

234,162,0,1 

216,157 

DATA 15 2,21 

192,0,20 8,2 

34,141,188 

DATA 34,173 

34,24,169,4 

34,173,192 

DATA 3 4, 135, 

233,40,141, 

DATA 141,19 

141,197,34, 

DATA 34, 173, 

216,141,139 

DATA 19 5,34 

34,169,19,1 

DATA 34,169 

FOR SPEED R 

LINE 4 90) W 

AND UN REM 



I,A:B=B+A 
THEN PRINT "BAD DATA": STOP 



160,20,189,0,4,153,19,4, 
53,171,7,232,135,192, 0,203 
,169,40,109,54,34,141, 
5,34,105,0,141,55,34, 

,34,141,57,34,173,58, 
1,53,3 4,55,173,60,34, 

173,61,34,233,0,141,61,34, 
4,233,40,141,63,34, 173,54 
,0,141, 64, 34, 173, 6 3, 34, 201, 
,169,4,141,55,34,141,58 
,7,141,61,34,141,54,34, 
4,34,169,19,141,57,34, 

,34,169,171,141,63,34, 
60,20,189,0,216,153,19, 

9,153,171,219,232,136, 
33, 24, 169, 40, 109,188, 

,189,34,105,0,141,189, 
0,109,191,34,141,191, 

0,141,192,34,56,173,194,34, 
194,34,173,195, 34,233,0 
5,34,56,173,197,34,233, 40, 
173,198,34,233,0, 141,198 
197,34,201,20 3,208,159,169, 
, 34,141,192,34, 169,219,141 
,141,198,34,169,0,141,1^3, 
41,191,34,169,152,141,194 
,171,141,197,34,76,49,234 
EPLACE NUMBER 76 (DATA 
ITH A 95 AND 
235-REM 330 & 340 C 



86 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sepl./Oct. 1984 



understanding your computer technical Nps 



Prime Numbers 

By Craig R. Hessel 

Prime numbers (2, 3, 5, 7, 11 and so on) are num- 
bers which cannot be written as the product of 
smaller numbers. Several hundred years ago, the 
number one was also considered to be prime, but 
since then mathematicians have found it more con- 
venient to exclude one from the definition. Prime 
numbers have long been objects of interest, since 
they are, in a sense, the building blocks for all num- 
bers. Even' integer greater than one is either prime 
or can be expressed as the product of primes. Every 
rational number can be written as the ratio of two 
integers. And even' real number, including irratio- 
nals like pi and the square root of two, is the limit of 
a (possibly infinite) chain of rational numbers. 

The ancient Greeks were the first to make an or- 
derly study of primes. Euclid's "Elements" shows 
that there are an infinite number of them. His proof 
is short enough to paraphrase here: if there were 
only a limited number of primes, a new number 
could be formed by taking their product and then 
adding one to it. This new number would be prime 
since none of the other primes would divide evenly 
into it. But the new number can't be prime since all 
the primes have already been taken into account. As 
Mr. Spock would say, "That's illogical, Captain." So 
to make things logical, there must be an infinite 
number of primes. 

If you look at a list of consecutive primes, you'll 
notice that they are rather unevenly spaced. Some- 
times two odd numbers in a row are prime, like 881 
and 883. Such pairs are called twin primes. At other 
times there may be a long gap in between primes. 
For example, 887 and 907 are both prime, while 
none of the Intervening numbers are. In spite of this 
erratic behavior, mathematicians for a long time 
suspected that the average distribution of primes 
could be accurately described. In particular, they 
wanted a good way to estimate the total number of 
primes less than any given number. 

In 1793, when he was only 16 years old, the young 
and later famous mathematician C. F. Gauss studied 
tables of primes and noticed that in the vicinity of 
each number N, there seemed to be about one 
prime for every LOG(N) numbers. (This is the same 
natural logarithm function that is provided by 



BASIC.) So Gauss speculated that the number of 
primes less than N could be estimated by integrating 
(which is like summing) the density function 
1 /LOG(X) from X=2 to X=N. Gauss and others 
tried unsuccessfully to show that this approx- 
imation tends to become more accurate with larger 
values of N. Finally, in 1896, J. Hadamard and 
C. Poussin independently proved this conjecture, 
which has come to be known as die Prime Num- 
ber Theorem. 

Program 1 uses the theorem to estimate the 
number of primes less than 1000. The result of 177 
is only a few percentages off the actual count of 168 
primes. By changing the value of N, you can get 
approximate prime counts up to but 
excluding 1000. For N equal ■ 
10000, the error has< 
dropped to 




about one and a half per cent. 

Although proving the Prime Number Theorem 
was a great achievement, there are always more 
questions in mathematics than there are answers. 
These three unresolved questions about primes 
have been around for quite awhile: 

1 Is there an infinite number of twin primes? 

2 Can every even number greater than two be ex- 
pressed as the sum of two primes? 

3 Are there infinitely many Mersenne primes? 

The answer to all three questions seems to be 
yes, but no one yet knows for sure. The origin of 
the first question is unclear. The second question 
dates back to C. Goldbach (1742). The third ques- 
tion, which has an interesting history, dates back 
to M. Mersenne (1644). 

Mersenne primes are primes of the form 2f N-l. 
It turns out that the exponent N must be prime in 
order for 2fN-l to be prime. The first 12 Mersenne 
primes have 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, 61, 89, 107 and 
127 for their exponents. These were the only known 
Mersenne primes until the advent of computers in 
the 1950s. Actually, Marin Mersenne had compiled 
a list of all primes of this type through 2f 257-1. At 
the time, the list astonished the mathematical 
world, since no one knew how he had accom- 
plished the feat. 

Eventually five errors (a surprisingly small 
number) were found on the list. The first was dis- 
covered more than two centuries after his original 
announcement and the last was found in 1922 when 
it was shown that 2 f 257-1 was, in fact, not prime. 
Today (at the time of writing), the largest explicitly 
known prime in the world is a Mersenne prime: 
2t 132049-1. 

Program 6 for the 64 gives a hard cop}' decimal 
printout of this prime. You might want to run the 
program overnight, because about eight hours of 
machine language number crunching precede the 
actual printing. The program needs 19. 5K buffer 
to hold the prime, which is 39,751 digits long. The 
printout fills up nearly eight pages at 80 characters 
per line and 66 lines per page. Here are its first and 
last few digits: 51274. . . 61311. You'll have to rely on 
your 64 for the rest. 

Program 6A is an assembly listing of the machine 
language subroutine used in Program 6. The 
equates can be modified as needed for other Com- 
modore computers or the exponent can be changed 
if a larger Mersenne prime is found. The subroutine 
is a significant improvement over the 150-hour 
method outlined for 6502 computers in the April, 
1984, issue of Scientific American. 

There are many ways to find primes. A simple way 
is illustrated in Program 2. Each odd number X up 



to 1000 is tested by looking for possible divisors. 
Successive odd numbers, starting with three, are 
selected as trial divisors until either a true divisor 
is found or until the trial divisor is larger than the 
square root of X. There's no sense going any fur- 
ther. If X has a divisor larger than that, it also has 
a smaller divisor which would have been discov- 
ered earlier. 

























































































































































^^ 




















































































































































































fci 


































h^ 
























































































































Ql 


















































































































'j,^ 










































- 







Program 3 uses a method which is over 2200 
years old — the sieve of Eratosthenes. Instead of 
starting with a number and then looking for possi- 
ble divisors, this method takes the opposite ap- 
proach. It considers a divisor and then looks at its 
multiples. To see how it works, take out a sheet of 
paper and write down all the odd numbers from 
three to 99. Starting with three times three equals 
nine, cross out every third number on the list (9, 15, 
21,. . . 99). Now starting with five times five equals 25, 
cross out even,- fifth number. (Include in your count 
numbers already crossed out and don't worry about 
crossing out numbers for a second time.) Next, re- 
peat the process with seven. Skip nine since it has 
been crossed out. Then stop, since eleven times 
eleven is greater than 99. The numbers which 
haven't been crossed out are prime. 

Note that the program does not require any mul- 
tiplications or divisions (other than by two). Squar- 
ing is accomplished with an adding technique. This 
makes the method especially suitable for machine 
code implementation. Some enterprising reader 
might try this with a 256K bit table to determine all 
the primes out to a half million or so. 

The sieve method can also be extended so that 
large blocks of odd numbers, not necessarily start- 
ing from one, can be sifted. This, however, requires 
division, multiplication and an auxiliary table of 
small primes up to the square root of the largest 
number to be sifted. The sieve method finds batches 
of primes faster than the trial division method does. 
But if you just want to know whether or not a par- 
ticular number is prime, the trial division method 
is a better choice. 



88 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



Many of you have no doubt already encountered 
the above methods for finding primes. The next 
method may surprise you. Program 4 uses a prob- 
abilistic primality test that evolved in the later 1970s. 
The test subroutine takes as input an odd integer K. 
Then it generates a random number X between one 
and K and follows that with a mathematical test on X 
and K. The result of the test is either "K is definitely 
not prime" (PM = 0) or "K is probably prime" 
(PM = 1). If K is really prime, then PM will be one for 
ever) 7 possible X. If K is really not prime, then PM 
will be incorrectly set to one for less than 25% of the 
possible values of X. Actually, for most non-prime 
values of K, the percentage is much less than that. 
Only for occasional numbers like 12403 is the 25% 
figure approached. 

The main program calls the test subroutine up to 
five times for each possible prime K. If PM is ever 
zero, the testing loop is aborted since K is not 
prime. If PM is one five times in a row, then the pro- 
gram prints K, since the probability that K is prime is 
better than l-(l/4) f 5 = 1023/1024 = 99.9+%. To 
reduce the chance of error even further, the num- 
ber of iterations in the test loop can be increased. 
On the other hand, to show that the test is not infal- 
lible, decrease the number of iterations to one. 
Then, instead of correctly finding 167 odd primes 
less than 1000, the program will probably incor- 
rectly come up with a few more. 

Do not hold your breath when you run the pro- 
gram. This is not the fastest way to find primes with 
BASIC. It is, however, one of the fastest general 
methods known for finding large primes. The pro- 
gram "Cryptocode 5/83" (Issue 26) takes only a few 
minutes with the method to find primes over 50 
digits long in the construction of Cryptographic 
keys. The prime-finding subroutine is written in the 
language LIAL (Issue 28), which accommodates 
large integers. Although a probabilistic method will 
not give sure-fire results, it can come very close. 
More importantly, there is no known non-probabil- 
istic method that could find such large primes on 
the 6502 in a reasonable amount of time. For exam- 
ple, the trial division method in LIAL would take 
about a million billion years to verify that a 50-digit 
number is prime. The warranty on your 64 would 
expire a little before that. 

The largest primes known have generally been 
Mersenne primes. A keen interest in verifying 
Mersenne s list was probably the original motivation 
for this. But the primary reason now is a fast primal- 
ity test discovered by E. Lucas in 1878 and improved 
by D. H . Lehmer in 1930. The test applies only 
to numbers of the form 2 f N-l, where N is an 
odd prime. 

Program 5 illustrates the method for small val- 



Prime 1 



100 


REM ROUGH COUNT OF PRIMES 


110 


N=1000:C=0:FOR X=2 TO N 




:C=C+1/L0G(X) :NBXT 


120 


PRINT"THERE ARE ABOUT" INT (C) 




"PRIMES TO"N:END 



Prime 2 



100 


REM ODD PRIMES BY TRIAL DIVISION 


110 


N=1O00:C=0:PRINT"COUNT" , "PRIME" 




:F0R X=3 TO N STEP 2:T=1 


120 


T=T+2:IF T*T>X THEN C=C+1 




:PRINT C,X:GOTO 140 


130 


Q=X/T:IF QOINTCQ) THEN 1 20 


140 


NEXT: END 



Prime 3 



130 REM ODD PRIMES BY SIEVE METHOD 
110 N=lfl00:C=0:X=C:Y=0:Z=0:NN=N/2-l 

:DIM S%(NN) :PRINT"COUNT", "PRIME" 
120 X=X+1:Y=Y+4:Z=Z+Y:IF Z>NN THEN 150 
130 IF S%(X) THEN 120 
140 FOR I=Z TO NN STEP X+X+l : S% ( I) =1 

:NEXT:GOTO 120 
150 FOR X=l TO NN:IF S%(X)=0 THEN 

C=C+1:PRINT C, X+X+l 
150 NEXT:END 



Prime 4 



100 


REM ODD PRIMES BY PROBABILITY TEST 


110 


N=1000: ITER=5:DEF FN 




M(I)=I-K*INT(I/K) : PRI NT" COUNT" , 




"PRIME" 


120 


FOR K=3 TO N STEP 2 




:F0R J=ITER TO 1 STEP -1:G0SUB 170 




: J=J*PM:NEXT 


130 


IF PM THEN C=C+1: PRINT C,K 


140 


NEXT: END 


150 


REM 


Ififl 


REM RABIN TEST SUBROUTINE 


170 


X=INT( (K-2) *RND(1) )+2:Y=0 :T=1 




:P=K-1 


180 


IF (P AND 1}=0 THEN Y=Y+l:P=P/2 




:G0TO 180 


190 


FOR 1 = 14 TO STEP -1:T=FN M(T*T) 




:IF P AND 2" I THEN T=FN M(T*X) 


200 


NEXT: 1=0: IF T=l THEN PM=1: RETURN 


210 


IF T=K-1 THEN PM=1:RETURN 


220 


1 = 1 + 1: IF I = Y THEN PM=0: RETURN 


230 


T=FN M(T*T):IF T=l THEN PM=S 




: RETURN 


240 


GOTO 210 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



89 



ues of N up to the limit of accuraq T in BASIC. The 
Lucas-Lehrnar test is fast only in comparison to other 
primality tests, A LIAL version of the test on the 64 
took a little over two hours to show that 2 f 1279-1 is 
prime. This is the largest Mersenne prime less than 
the LIAL large-integer limit of 2 1 2040. A similar 
6502 coding of the test applied to 2 1 132049-1 
would take about 250 years. Obviously, very fast 
computers are being used in the search for 
Mersenne primes. 

Of what possible value are primes? The popular 
astronomer Carl Sagan once noted that we here on 
earth could advertise our presence as an intelligent 
species to the rest of the universe by simply broad- 
casting over and over again the first few prime num- 
bers (up to, say, 100). Such a beacon could have no 
possible natural source. A more down to earth use 
of primes is in cryptography, where concealment of 
messages is the goal. See, for example, "Public-Key 
Cryptography For Commodore Microcomputers" 
(Issue 26). Curiously, the goal of cryptography is 
precisely the opposite of Sagan 's beacon. 

For those who like numbers, though, primes hold 
their own intrinsic fascination. As an analog} 7 , think 
of primes as stars. The brightest stars, visible to the 
naked eye, are like the small primes we are all famil- 
iar with. Farther away are stars that we can see with 
hobby telescopes. These are like the primes we can 
easily find with BASIC. Just as all of these stars have 
been catalogued, so have all the primes out to at 
least a dozen or so digits. Still farther away are stars 
that can be detected only with high-power tele- 
scopes. These stars are so numerous that they have 
not all been catalogued. They await discovery by 
anyone who points the right equipment in their di- 
rection. These are like the large primes that can be 
found with a language like LIAL. Yet farther away are 
the most distant objects man can see— the quasars 
that recede from us at large fractions of the speed of 
light. These are like the large Mersenne primes that 
only the world's fastest computers can find. 



Prime 5 



100 REM MERSENNE PRIMES BY 

LUCAS-LEHMER TEST 
110 DATA 3,5,7,ll,13:W$(l>)=" NOT" 

:W$(1)="" 
120 FOR J=l TO 5:READ N: P=2*N-1 : L=4 

: PM = 
130 FOR 1 = 3 TO N';L=L*L-2 

:L=L-P*INT(L/P) :NEXT 

:IF L=0 THEN PM=1 
140 PRINT"2 [*]"N"- 1 ="P"IS"W$(PM) " 

PRIME" -.NEXT: END 



Prime 6 



100 REM C-64 PROGRAM TO HARD PRINT 

2*132049-1 IN DECIMAL FORM 
110 POKE 55,0:POKE 56,32:CLR 

:ENTRY=1 2*4096 :BUFFER=2*4096 
120 POWER=132049:DIGITS=1+INT 
(POWER*LOG(2)/LOG(10) ) 
;BYTES=INT( (DIGITS-1) / 2) 
130 SUM=0:FOR I=ENTRY TO ENTRY+92 

:READ X:P0KE I , X: SUM=SUM+X: NEXT 
140 IF SUM013237 THEN PRINT"CHECKSUM 

ERROR IN DATA STATEMENTS" : END 
150 PRINT"WAIT ABOUT 8 HOURS..." 

:SYS ENTRY 
160 INPUT"TURN ON PRINTER THEN PRESS 

RETURN" ;A$ 
170 OPEN 4,4:PRINT|4,"THE 

F0LL0WING"DIGITS"DIGIT NUMBER IS 
THE LARGEST KNOWN "; 
180 PRINT#4, "PRIME AS OF APRIL, 1984:" 
:PRINTft4:PRINT#4 / "2 ["] 
"POWER"- 1 = "; 
190 FOR I=BYTES TO STEP -1 

:T=PEEK(BUFFER+I) :X=T/16+48 
:Y=(15 AND T)+48 
200 IF KBYTES OR T>9 THEN PRINT14, 

CHRS(X) ; 
210 PRINT|4,CHR$(Y) ; : NEXT : PRINTS 4 

: CLOSE 4: END 
1000 DATA 248,160,3,190,89,192,232, 
150,96,136,208,247,132,100,132, 
101 
1010 DATA 32,82,192,144,20,177,101, 

113,101,145,101,200,208,247,230, 
102 
1020 DATA 202,16,242,144,15,230,100, 
48,40,169,1,145,101,152,200,145 
1030 DATA 101,200,208,251,32,82,192, 

198,99,20 8,218,198,98,208,214,198 
1040 DATA 97,208,210,177,101,233,0, 

14 5,101,200,208,247,230,102,202, 
16 
1050 DATA 242,216,169,32,133,102,166, 
100,24,96,2,3,209 



90 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



understanding your computer technical tips 



Adding a Hex Keypad 
to Your PET/CBM 



By Ronald E. Randolph 

Years ago I added a full-sized 
keyboard to my original PET. This 
keyboard has a numeric keypad 
in addition to the alphabetic pad. 
I do a lot of work in the monitor, 
entering large numbers of hex 
numbers. Having my hand travers- 
ing the entire keyboard from the 
numeric pad to the alphabetic pad 
to enter the hex numbers makes 
for some tiring and frustrating 
hours. Typing in "Micromon" took 
me over two months. 

You can construct a hex keypad 
for as little as $5.00. Your new "ev- 
erything is right at my fingertips 
in the same area" keypad will cut 
down dramatically on the time you 
spend with hex input. 

You should purchase an unen- 
coded keypad as opposed to one 
that is wired to output the ASCII 
code, An unencodecl keypad will 
have no circuitry associated with 
the unit; you will probably see 
a number of IC chips and other 
components attached to an en- 
coded keypad. However, if an 
encoded pad is the only type you 
can acquire, be sure to cut all of 
the p.c. board traces to all of the 
individual keys. I purchased an 
unencoded keypad from KO En- 
terprises, 1229 S. Napa Street, 
Philadelphia, PA 19146. 

Your keypad should have at least 
16 keys, one each for the letters A 
to F and for the numbers zero to 
nine. A 19- or 20-key pad is better. 
It will permit you to have such con- 
trol keys as the RETURN and die cur- 
sor control keys. I plan to build 
another unit with 25 keys, allowing 
me more convenience functions. 



In this article, I will assist you 
in constructing a 20-key unit. You 
should also be certain that the 
keypad you buy has only two 
terminals at the underside of 
each key switch. I have seen key 
switches with three or four termi- 
nals. 1 suspect that in such key 
switches, two of the terminals can 
be determined to serve as ordi- 
nary, normally off, momentary 
contact switches (the type we 
need). An ohm meter can be used 
to select the proper key pins. I 
have not, however, confirmed this. 

If you open the PET, you will see 
a set of wires coming from the na- 
tive keyboard and attached via a 
connector to a row of pins on the 
main p.c. board. The pins on the 
board are designated from left to 
right A to H and one to ten. The 
native key switches are wired in 
an eight-by-ten matrix, letter x 
number. If you short any pair of 
letter/number pins, the PET will 
respond with the printing of a 
character unique to that letter/ 
number combination. The key- 
switches serve to make these 
shorts each time you press a key. 

Figure 1 gives you a list of the 
letter number combinations 
needed for a functional hex pad. 
A connection shorting any of these 
pairs will yield the character as- 
sociated with that pair. 

Construction 

Refer to Figure 2. The arrange- 
ment of the key switches on the 
keypad is shown in 2a. That ar- 
rangement as seen from the bot- 
tom of the keypad is given in 2b. 
Note that in addition to the label 



designation of each switch, I have 
labeled the pins with either a one 
or a two. My convention is to call 
the leftmost pin a one and the 
rightmost pin a two. 

Figure 3 gives you the actual 
wiring to be made. My system of 
wiring directives will be familiar 
to any of you former electrical 
draftsman. There are basically two 
types of directives — one type for 
connections which go from switch 
to switch, and a modified direc- 
tive syntax for those connections 
which go from switch to the ter- 
minal strip on the PET main cir- 
cuit board. Here is an example of 
each directive: 

KC2-K32 connect pin 2 

of the 'C switch 
to pin 2 of the 
'3* switch 
KRTN1-TS A connect pin 1 

of the 'RETURN' 
switch to pin 'A of 
the keyboard ter- 
minal strip on the 
main circuit board. 

All connections of the latter 
type should be made with flat flex 
cable. Be certain to provide strain 
relief at the point where your flat 
cable exits the keypad and also in- 
side the PET chassis. This strain 
relief can be as simple as taping 
the cable down with some type of 
super strong adhesive tape, such 
as fiber-impregnated package 
sealing tape. 

Do not be alarmed that the 
same directive appears more 
than once in Figure 3. This sim- 
ply implies that there is more 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oci. 1964 



91 



than one connection placed on 
that terminal. 

It was very cumbers* imc sol- 
dering wires to the pins on the 
keypad I used. The pins were too 
short to permit me to wrap the 
wires first on the pin and then sol- 
der them, or to conveniently sol- 
der more than one wire per pin. I 
solved this problem by taking the 
pins off of a wire wrap socket (cut 
them off close to the socket) and 
soldering one of these pins to 
each "one" and "two" pin of the 
key switches. 

When you finally make the con- 
nections to the PET main board, 
be extremely careful not to short 
adjacent wires. It is here that you 
will probably be soldering the 
wires from your flex cable to the 
terminal strip. It is possible, how- 
ever, to construct a piggyback 
connector which sandwiches in 
between the resident keyboard 
connector and the terminal strip. 
My full-sized keyboard is wired 
this way. 1 had to solder the hex 
pad to the strip since the pins 
were too short to permit another 
sandwich job. You must also be 
careful to avoid melting the plastic 
housing of the terminal pins with 
your iron. 

After wiring the keypad, 1 made 
a housing for the unit from stiff 
corregated cardboard. It is sturdy 
and lightweight. I plan to build 
another housing from lightweight 
balsa wood. 

A little experimentation with 
the shorting ofkeyswitch pins will 
give you other characters. If you 
need characters other than the 
ones I have given codes for, drop 
me a postcard in care of this mag- 
azine and I can get them to you. 



Key 


Letter-Number Code 


Key 


Letter-Number Code 


A 


A5 


4 


G5 


B 


C7 


5 


G6 


C 


B7 


6 


H5 


D 


B5 


7 


G3 


E 


B3 


8 


G4 


F 


B6 


9 


H3 





G9 


SHUT 


F9 used with cursor kevs 


1 


G7 


RTN 


F7 RETURN 


2 


G8 


— > 


HI cursor right/left 


3 


H7 


r 


G2 cursor up/down 



Figure 1. Codes for hex pad. The letter-number codes refer to the pins on 
the main circuit hoard terminal strip. 



A 


B 


C 


D 




7 


8 


9 


E 




4 


5 


6 


F 




1 


2 


3 


\ 
/ 







/ 
s 


t 


S 

H 
I 
F 

T 


R 
T 
N 





D 
1 2 


C 

1 2 


B 
1 2 


A 
1 2 


E 
1 2 


9 
1 2 


8 

1 2 


7 
1 2 


F 
1 2 


6 

1 2 


5 
1 2 


4 
1 2 


1 2 


3 
1 2 


2 
1 2 


1 
1 2 


RTN 
1 2 


SHIFT 
1 2 


% 
1 2 



1 2 



(a) 



(b) 



Figure 2. 2a shows the topside of your hex pad. 2b shows the bottom side 
with the key pins designated as 1 and 2. The designation KF2 refers to key 
switch "F," pin 2. Wire wrap pins were cut from their IC sockets and soldered 
to each keys' 1 and 2 pin. Flex cahle connections were added last and were 
soldered to the upper part of the wire wrap pin. 




92 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



Rowl 

KA2-TS.A 
KA1-KD1 
KD1-K62 
K62-K42 

K42-TS.5 
KB2-TS.C 

KB1-TS.7 

KB1-KC2 

KC2-K32 

KC3-K12 

K12-KRTN1 

KC1-TS.B 

KC1-KD2 

KD2-KE2 

KE2-KF2 

K72-TS.3 

K71-K82 

K82-K52 

K52-K41 

K41-K22 

K22-K11 

K11-K01 



Row 2 

KOl-Kf 1 

Kf 1-TS.G 

K \ 2-TS.2 

K81-TS.4 

K72-K92 

K92-KE1 

K91-K61 

K61-K31 

K31-K^2 

K^2-TS.H 

K«*l-T5.1 

KF1-TS.6 

KF1-K51 

K21-TS.8 

K02-TS.9 

K02-KSHIFT2 

KSHIFT1-KRTN2 

KRTN-TS.F 



Figure 3. Physical wiring chart. Start at the top of Row 1, going down that 
row completely. Start then, at the top of Row 2. "K" means "key switch." The 
syntax is "key label " "pin #," an example is K82, which is read as pin 2 of 
the "8" key. The symbol f is me cursor up/down key. The symbol is the 
cursor right/left key. C 




ALL 




i 



GO 



HAS 

PERIPHERALS 

TOGO 

AT ROCK-BOTTOM 

PRICES 



PRINTERS 



AlphaCom B1 (BO GPS) . . $169 
Legend 1200 (120 CPS) . S299 
Car-dco LQ 2 (12 CPS) . . . $299 



DISK DRIVES 



Commodore 1 541 $239 

MSD Single $369 

MSD Double $599 

Amdek Color I $269 

USI Amber $129 

HesModem $49 

1650 Auto Modem $89 



MONITORS 



INTERFACES 



Cardco Economy Printer . . $47 
Cardco Graphic Printer . . . $77 



BOARDS 



Cardco 5 Slot Mother .... $55 
Batteries Incl'd. Bus. Card $139 



ACCESSORIES 



Cardco Numeric Key Pad . . $35 
Wico Boss Joystick $15 

CALL 602-870-941 9 

82 PHONE REBATE 
WITH ANY ORDER 

OR ORDER BY MAIL 

ALL 5V5UEITB GO 

3116 E. Shea Blvd. 
Ste. 207, Phx., AZ 85028 

SHIPPING CHARGES 

0-100 S 5 
101-200 S B 

201-300 S10 

301- up $15 

All prices are for cash or check— 

Visa/MasterCard add 4%. 



Circle Reader Service No. 15 



understanding your computer technical hps 



Inverse Trigonometric 
Functions \ 

By Jim Butterfield 

This is about trigonometric functions. (Sorry J 
about that. I know that many readers would rather 
read about Space Gobblers or other neat games. But 
I gotta get this little math thing out of my system.) 

Here's the thing: in the back of every Commodore 
user's guide is a table (usually Appendix H) called 
Deriving Mathematical Functions. Few people read 
it. Fewer people use it. But there's something in 
there that's right . . . although it's not good. 

I'm talking about the inverse sine and the inverse 
cosine. I know, I can see you nodding your head, 
saying, "Yes, I've spent a lot of sleepless nights 
worrying about whether or not the inverse cosine 
formula was right . . . ." But what can 1 tell you? 
Someday, you're gonna need an inverse cosine 
really bad and when you do it's gonna let you down. 

There are more and more graphics in use on 
Commodore computers. The more you get se- 
riously into graphics, the more you get into trig. 
Someday, you'll be glad we had this little talk. 

How It Happened 

I was writing a program to calculate great circle 
distances between any two points on the earth's 
surface. Now, we all know that the formula for 
distance is: 

D=arccos(cos(latl)*cos(Iat2)*cos(fongl-long2) 
+sin(latl)*sin(lat2) 

This ends up with distance as an angle ("Put on 
the coffeepot, I'm only a half degree away. . ."). How 
come? Well, it's the angle measured from the center 
of the earth between the two points. From there it's 
easy to change to miles or kilometers or whatever. 

Heres the problem: if the two points are the same 
place, angle D turns out to be zero. If one is at the 
north pole and the other on the equator, angle D 
turns out to be 90 degrees. If one is at the north 
pole and die other at the south pole, angle D is 180 
degrees. Does this make sense? It should if you 
think about it. Remember, It's the angle from the 
center of the earth. 

We know our formula is along the lines: 
D=arccos(X) 
and so for the three distance angles (0, 90 and 180), 



4t 




>, 



Htnn J 

h In htN 

we know that expression X must work out to 1, 0, 
and -1 respectively. If the computer had an arccos 
(ACOS) function, we could plug it in and work the 
value out immediately. 

But we don't have ACOS, an arc cosine function. 
We have only ATAN, an arc tangent function. No 
problem. We whip open our Commodore user 
guide and dig out the formula which changes a 
cosine value to a tangent value. And we run 
into trouble. 
The formula says: 

ARCCOS(X)=ATN(X/SQR( -X*X+ 1 )) +pi/2 
Aaaargh! Whv can't thev say, at least: 

ACOS(X) = pi/2-ATN(X/SQR(l-X*X))..? 

But that's not my problem. As we've noted for 
our three cases, X might have a value of 1 , or - 1 . 
The middle value (zero) works out OK to pi/2 (90 
degrees). But whether we have plus one or minus 
one, SQR(1 — X*X) turns out to be the square root 
of zero, and we can't divide by zero. 

The problem boils down to this: the tangent of 
+90 degrees or —90 degrees is infinity. So, if you 
want to get a value of X that will produce 90 degrees 
on an ATN(X) function, X must be infinite. This is 
just a titch too high for Commodore's floating point 
notation. You can't make it in 40 bits of storage. I 
checked with a local university who has a 64-bit 
computer and it seems that they can't quite count 
to infinity either, although they're working on it. 

In other words, you can't get there from here. 

ANewASINandACOS 

This problem can be neatly resolved by going to 
the half-angle formulas and messing about a bit. It 
works out as follows: 

ASIN(X)=2*ATN(X/(1 +SQR(1 -X*X)) 
ACOS(X)=pi/2-2*ATN(X/(l+SQR(l-X*X)) 
They are almost as compact as the previous for- 
mulas (or formulae, if you're into Latin) and they 
are almost as accurate. How do thev work? Thev 




94 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



work out values from —45 degrees to +45 degrees 
and then double the result. And the ATN function 
behaves well in this more limited range. 

Distance Calculation 

I hate to corrupt a mathematical treatise with a 
practical application, but I've already given the game 
away by quoting a distance formula. Here comes a 
simple distance calculator: 



inn 


DATA MILES, 3956. 62 


110 


DATA KILOMETERS, 6367. S'iG 


i?.fi 


DIM L(2,2) 


125 


READ M$,M 


130 


INPUT"MILES OR KILOMETERS" ;T$ 


140 


IF LEFTS (T$,l) ="K" THEN READ M$,M 


150 


PRINT 


inn 


FOR J=l TO 2 


170 


GOSUB 300 


188 


NEXT J 


190 


A=L(1, 1} :B=L{2,1) :C=L (1 ,2) -L(2 , 2) 


200 


X=COS(A) *C0S(B) *C0S(C)+SIN (A) *SIN 




(B) 


213 


D=3.14159 27/2-2*ATN{X/(l+SQR 




(1-X*X) }} 


220 


PRIMT"DISTANCE = " ; INT (D*M+ . 5) ;M$ 


230 


EMD 


300 


PRINT" LOCATION''; J 


310 


K=l: PRINT" LATITUDE:" 


320 


GOSUB 400 


330 


K=2: PRINT" LONGITUDE:" 


340 


GOSUB 400 


350 


RETURN 


400 


INPUT"DEGREES" ; LI 


410 


INPUT" MINUTES" ;L2 


420 


INPUT"SEC0NDS";L3 


430 


L(J,K)=(Ll+L2/60+L3/3fi0 0) 




*3. 1415927/130 


440 


RETURN 



You may, of course, use the pi symbol in place of the 
value 3.1415927 in lines 210 and 430. 

Afterthought 

One of the things I find fascinating about 
Commodore computers is that they all — every 
one — have a full set of mathematical functions 
worked out to full accuracy. Whether you have an 
inexpensive VIC 20 or a mighty SuperPET, you still 
have it all. 

You may want to mess with the above program 
to have it print tables of distances from a given 
location, total mileage of an itinerary or whatever. 
If you want to use it for extremely small distances, 
remember that the cosine function is quite inac- 
curate in this area. The cosine of zero degrees is 
very close to the cosine of one degree. Look for 
other methods... C 



LVe'ue Got 
Vwpk Totem 


REVIEWERS SAY: 

"This is the best typing tutor j 
we have seen yet; •***+" 

INFO-64 

"Computer aided instruction at 
its best." Commander 

"This is an excellent program 
that makes typing practice an 
enjoyable pastime instead of 
boring drudgery." 

DILITHIUM PRESS 

Rated the BEST educational 


to "™ icu '*' 

I TYPEWG TUTOR 1 
| WORD INVADERS 1 


program for the VIC 20 

Creative Computing 


SOFTM/MBE 


CUSTOMERS SAY: £■ ■■■■■F 
". . . delighted with my son's 

progress ... he is the only one in his second grade class 
who touch types at the computer." 

"Your Typing Tutor is an excellent program . . . our 4 
children literally wait in line to use it." 

"Thoroughly satisfied, can't believe how fast I've learned to 
type. I've never typed before." 

In daily use by schools across the USA. 

TYPING TUTOR + WORD INVADERS 

Commodore 64": TapeS21.95 

Commodore 64": Disk $24,95 

VIC 20™ (unexpended) TapeS2l.95 


REALISTIC AIRCRAFT RESPO 

"Has a quality of realism which 
sets it apart from others, even 
those I've tested in flight school." 
Compute's Gazette 

"Great program!" INFO-64 

"It is tremendous fun." 

Compute's Gazette 

"Flight tested by an air traffic 
controller, two skilled pilots and 
an elementary school class. 
Highly recommended by all." 


NSE 

a —st.-- 3 

i FLIGHT SIMAAIOH' 


frll 


"This is an unbelievably realistic 


AUOEfiW 

I SOHVMat 


simulation of the difficulties 
facing a pilot in instrument fly- 
ing. I'm a 747 pilot and I think that t 
a tot to improve the reactions and ir 
of even very experienced pilots." 

IFR (FLIGHT SIMULATOf 

Commodore 64"! Ta 

VIC20"(unexpanded| 

JOYSTICK RECUIR 

™jg" Shipping and handling 
^HM order CA residents a 

ACADc 

SOFTl/V 

P.O. Box 6277 San Rafael, CA 

Programmers: Write to our New Prog 

any exceptional Commodore 64 prog 


lis simulation could do 
strument scan habits 
747 pilot 

*) 

pe or Disk S29.95 
Cartridge S39.95 

ED 

si oo per mm 

dd 6% tax. y&mr 

;mv 

'ARE 

94903 (415)499-0850 

am Manager concerning 
am you have developed. 



Circle Reader Service No. 16 



understanding your computer commodore 64 users only 



Screen Box Data 
Display Routines 



By Peter L. Knox 

Controlling the nature and for- 
mat of the data that goes into your 
programs is a fundamental re- 
quirement of good programming. 
Data with unexpected content or 
of unexpected length can easily 
ruin an otherwise well crafted 
program. The output from your 
programs, whether to the video 
monitor, the printer or the tape or 
disk drive, must be carefully con- 
trolled. In order to control the 
output, you must first control 
the input. 

One way to control input is to 
have the computer present the 
operator with a box screen. The 
length of the box controls the 
length of the data that goes into 
it and comes out of it. While the 
operator is entering data into the 
box, the data can be screened 
character by character in order to 
weed out undesirable characters. 
Once the operator has finished 
with the box, the data in it can 
be screened for other program 
parameters. If the data in the box 
is unacceptable, the program can 
return to the box and demand 
correct data. 

The screen box data routines 
illustrated in this program for 
the Commodore 64 can be used 
to control the location, color and 
length of a data box on the screen. 
The data box can contain state- 
ments such as operator prompts 
and error or reminder messages, 
or the box can accept operator re- 
sponses or changes to data. These 
changes can then be acted upon 
bv the program. The data boxes 
are all done without the use of 



PRINT commands. 

Line 100 skips over the sub- 
routines and goes to the part of 
the program that you want to illus- 
trate. In line 100 just change the 
GOTO number to 1000, 2000, 
or 3000. 

Lines 2000-2800 illustrate a 
simple method of putting an error 
message or a prompt any place 
on the screen. The message is put 
into string variable Z$ in line 2200, 
Line 2300 sets the row at eight and 
the column at four. This is where 
the box will start. Line 2400 sets 
the box length at 24 characters and 
its color at white. A list of other 
colors is contained in Appendix G 
of the owners manual. Line 2500 
goes to the subroutine (at 200) 
that will display the characters in 
Z$ in the box. 200 will in turn call 
400 to put the color into the boxes. 

If you POKE characters to the 
screen without giving them a dis- 
tinctive color, you won't be able 
to see them unless you happen to 
pass the cursor over the character. 
You will then see the POKEd char- 
acter flashing behind the cursor. 
Very annoying! Line 2600 simu- 
lates a reason why you might have 
a screen box prompt. Line 2700 
puts one space into the box and 
then changes the box color to the 
screen color (blue in this case), 
thereby making the box disappear 
from view. 

Line 212 determines the posi- 
tion on the video screen at which 
you are PEEKing or POKEing. 
1024 is the memory address of 
the upper lefthand corner of the 
screen. See Appendix G in the 64 



owner's manual for the complete 
screen map. R is the row down 
from the top of the screen and C is 
the column over from the left side 
of the screen. Line 215 determines 
the length of string variable ZS that 
is being fed into the screen box. If 
the variable is longer than the box, 
it will be cut off. 

Lines 220 to 245 examine each 
character of string variable X$, 
determine its ASCII number (see 
Appendix E of the 64 owner's man- 
ual) and convert it into a character- 
set-one POKEable number (see 
Appendix E of the 64 owner's man- 
ual). Line 235 converts these num- 
bers to ones that will POKE the 
characters in reverse images, thus 
giving a screen box. Line 250 fills 
up the box with reverse image 
spaces if the variable is shorter 
than the box length. Line 255 calls 
the subroutine at 400 that will put 
the color into the box so that it 
can be seen. 

Lines 400-460 put color into 
the screen box by POKEing the 
previously defined box color into 
the separate color memory for the 
screen character memory cells 
that contain the characters already 
POKEd into the screen memory 
cells. Line 410 performs the same 
function as line 212, except that it 
POKEs to the screen color cells in- 
stead of to the character cells. Line 
420 starts a FOR/NEXT loop that 
loops once for each spot in the 
box. Line 430 POKEs the color. 

Lines 2000-2800 illustrate a 
statement displayed in a box. To 
be really useful though, the data 
in the box must be modified and 



96 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept /Oct. 1984 



fed back into the program. The 
routine at 1000 shows how this 
works. Be sure to change line 
100 first. 

Line 1200 puts the desired data 
into string variable Z$. Z$ will be 
fed into the box, modified if de- 
sired and returned as Z$. Line 
1300 positions the start of the box 
at row eight and column four. Line 
1400 sets its length and color. Line 
1500 goes to the subroutine de- 
scribed above to display the data. 
In line 1600, CC = 14 sets the box 
color when the operator exits. In 
this case, it will be light blue. The 
call to the subroutine at 300 actu- 
ally does the data changing. Line 
1700 just prints the data upon its 
exit from the subroutine at 300 so 
you can see that the subroutine 
really works. 

Lines 300 to 395 contain 
the subroutine that allows the 
operator to change data in the 
screen box displayed by the sub- 
routines at 200 and 400. Line 310 
initializes the subroutine by set- 
ting the box position pointer (BP) 
to position one. This pointer is 
used to keep track of the cursor 
position within the box. Line 320 
is the same as line 410: it sets the 
POKE color position to the first 
spot in the box. Line 325 is the 
same as line 212 and it does the 
same thing for the position of the 
next character. Line 330 creates a 
flashing cursor so that you will 
know where you are in the box. 
The cursor is made to flash by al- 
ternately POKEing two different 
colors into POKE position PP. 
The GET Z$:IF Z$=" " THEN 330 
causes the program to wait for a 
key to be touched. Once a key is 
touched, control drops down to 
line 335 and the ASCII number 
of the character gotten by the 
GET statement is returned into 
numeric variable Z. Now that 
the character gotten in line 330 
has been converted to an ASCII 
number, it can be evaluated and 
POKEd to the screen or rejected. 
Line 340 is actually the exit 



from the subroutine. The RETURN 
key has an ASCII value of 13 and 
the HOME key has a value of 19 
(see Appendix F of the 64 owner's 
manual). Pressing either key 
causes you to exit the subroutine. 
Using two different exit keys 
allows you to exit forwards or 
backwards from the box by having 
the exit key value carried out of 
the box in numeric variable Z. If 
you test for the value of Z when 
exiting from a box, you can tell 
the program what to do next (see 
lines 3430 and 3450). When this is 
done, BC=CC causes the subroutine 
at 400 to POKE the desired exiting 
color into the box in lieu of the 
highlighted color that was used to 
let you know that you were in the 
box. The subroutine at 600 feeds 
the data in the box back into mem- 
ory. This will be discussed below. 

If you have pressed some key- 
other than RETURN or HOME, ' 
then line 345 checks to see if vou 
touched the CURSOR LEFT key 
(ASCII value = 157) or the DE- 
LETE key — used as a backspace 
key (value = 19). If you did and 
the box position point (BP) is not 
at the left side of the box (position 
one), then the counters that are 
keeping track of the POKE color 
position (PC), the POKE position 
(PP) and the box position pointer 
(BP) are de-incremented and con- 
trol goes back to line 330 where 
the cursor will now flash one 
position to the left of where it 
was before. 

If you didn't touch the CURSOR 
LEFT or BACKSPACE keys then line 
350 checks to see if you touched 
the CURSOR RIGHT key. If you did 
and there is room to move right 
then the cursor moves right and 
control goes back to line 330 to 
await another keystroke. If you 
didn't touch one of these, then 
line 360 checks for commas and 
colons and converts them to a 
graphics character that resembles 
a comma and then it skips over 
the rest of the character tests. The 
commas and colons are weeded 



out so that if you file your data 
to the disk drive (or to a tape re- 
corder) and try to retrieve it with 
an INPUT# statement, then the 
INPUT# won't be fooled by the 
comma or colon into thinking that 
it has reached the end of the vari- 
able that it is trying to input. Line 
365 converts leading quotation 
marks into apostrophes for a simi- 
lar reason: if left at the beginning 
of the variable, then the disk drive 
will delete all of the quotation 
marks from your variable. It is bet- 
ter to have the program screen out 
these undesirable characters than 
to forget to do it yourself one day. 

Line 370 weeds out undesir- 
able characters. Line 375 converts 
the ASCII numbers of any letters 
and certain typing symbols down 
to their POKE numbers. If you 
look at Appendices E and F of the 
owner's manual, you will see that 
the character-set-one POKEs for 
letters are exactly 64 numbers 
lower than their corresponding 
ASCII numbers. Line 380 converts 
the POKE numbers to their re- 
verse image numbers. Some limi- 
tation such as that in line 370 is 
necessary so that you don't end up 
trying to POKE a number greater 
than 255, since this would cause 
the program to crash with an error 
message. 

Line 380 reverses the image 
and 390 POKEs the reversed 
image character into the current 
cursor position PP and then if 
there is room left in the box (i.e., 
if the box position pointer BP is 
pointing to a position at least one 
spot to the left of the end of the 
box BL), it increments the position 
counters. Line 395 recycles the 
program back to line 330 to GET 
another keystroke. 

Once the RETURN or HOME key 
is touched, line 340 calls the sub- 
routine at 400 to put the exit color 
in the box and then it calls the 
subroutine at 600 to feed the data 
in the box into memory as string 
variable Z$. Line 610 positions the 
PEEK position at the start of the 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oci. 1984 97 



box, just as in lines 212 and 325- 
Line 615 clears out variables ZS 
and Z1S. Line 620 starts a FOR/ 
NEXT loop that is as long as the 
box is and at each spot in the box 
it PEEKs at the screen to see what 
character is in the spot. PEEKing is 
different from POKEing, looking 
instead of putting. 

Line 625 is the reverse of line 
380; it un-reverses the characters. 
Line 630 is the reverse of line 375- 
It converts PEEK and POKE num- 
bers of letters and certain typing 
characters up into their ASCII 
numbers. Line 635 converts one 
character PEEK number located in 
Yand PEEKed at line 620 into its 
printable string variable character 
equivalent. Line 640 then adds this 
character to the end of string vari- 
able Z$. 

Line 650 starts a FOR/NEXT 
loop that is the length of ZS. Line 
655 then examines ZS character by 
character from end to beginning 
to find the last character that is not 
a space. Lines 665 and 670 then 
drop the leading and trailing 
spaces by setting ZS equal to the 
part of ZS that has non-space 
characters in it. This is done only 
to conserve memory. If you are 

Screen Box 



filing to a sequential file, then the 
extra spaces waste disk space. If 
you are filing to relative fields, you 
will not save disk space this way. In 
any event, you still conserve live 
.memory by compressing out lead- 
ing and trailing spaces. Line 675 
pads any empty strings with a lead- 
ing dash or hyphen. This is clone 
to prevent disk filing errors that 
result from trying to retrieve 
empty variables. It also prevents 
errors that would occur if vou use 
the LEFTS, RIGHTS, MIDI or LEN 
functions on an empty string. 

If you again change the 
GOTO in line 100, you can now 
try the multiple box illustration 
at line 3000. 

Line 3200 sets three variables. 

Lines 3300-3340 put them into 
three boxes by using the box dis- 
playing subroutine at 200. If the 
boxes were not the same length or 
color then this data would have to 
be specified for each box. 

Lines 3400-3440 go from 
box to box asking for operator 
changes. Line 3410 sets flag F=l 
so that line 355 will permit only 
numbers or decimal points to ap- 
pear in this box. Line 355 could be 
used to screen for other charac- 



teristics, too. 

Lines 3430 and 3450 illustrate 
how the use of two exit keys can 
permit the operator to back up out 
of a screen box to another screen 
box. You can use backing up selec- 
tively and you can even use it to 
back up right out of a subroutine. 
Nothing is more annoying than a 
computer program that won't let 
you back up and try again. 

If you are filing to the disk drive, 
as one might do when using rela- 
tive files, then a filing subroutine 
might be called between each 
box. Lines 3800-3820 just print 
out proof that the changes were 
really made. 

An interesting project would be 
to write multiple boxes into your 
program with a method of using 
the up and down cursor keys or 
perhaps the function keys to move 
at will between the boxes. This 
would speed up operation of the 
program when you do not want 
to cycle sequentially through the 
boxes presented to you by the 
program. Adding a line before 340 
might be a good place to cause an 
instant exit from a box without 
having to cycle through the box- 
display routines. 



10 REM "BOX 2" 03/04/84 212 

15 REM PETER L. KNOX, ESQ. 215 

20 REM SCITUATE SOFTWARE 220 

25 REM 7 BISHOPS LANE 225 

30 REM SCITUATE, MASSACHUSETTS 230 
35 REM (617) 545-9267, 843-9225 
BOX LENGTH 

BOX COLOR 235 
BOX POSITION POINTER 

CHARACTER COLOR 240 
POKE OR PEEK CHARACTER 

245 

POKE COLOR POSITION 250 
ROW 

COLUMN 255 

OUTPUT 260 

FLAG; 1=NUMBERS ONLV 300 
100 GOTO 3000 : REM 1000, 2000, 

OR 3000 DEPENDING ON ILLUSTRATION 310 

290 REM SUBROUTINE TO DISPLAY SCREEN 320 

BOX DATA 325 

210 IF ZS = " " THEN ZS = " " 330 

:REM PREVENTS ERRORS ON NULL 

STRINGS 332 



40 


REM 


BL 


= 


45 


REM 


BC 


= 


50 


REM 


BP 


= 


55 


REM 


CC 


= 


60 


REM 


PP 


= 




POSITION 


65 


REM 


PC 


= 


70 


REM 


R 


= 


75 


REM 


C 


= 


80 


REM 


z 


= 


85 


REM 


F 


= 



PP=1024+(R*40)+C 

X=LEN(Z$): IF X > BL THEN X=BL 

FOR Y=l TO X 

Z=ASC(MID$(Z$,Y,1) ) 

IF Z>63 THEN Z=Z-64 

:REM CONVERTS ASCII TO CHARACTER 

SET 1 POKES 

Z=Z+128:REM CONVERTS TO REVERSE 

IMAGE POKES 

POKE PP,Z:PP=PP+1:REM POKES & 

ADDS TO COUNTER 

NEXT 

IF X < BL THEN FOR PP=PP TO 

PP+BL-LEN(ZS)-l:POKE PP,160:NEXT 

GOSUB 410 : REM ADDS BOX COLOR 

RETURN 

REM SUBROUTINE TO CHANGE SCREEN 

BOX DATA 

BP=1:REM SETS POINTER TO 1 

PC=55296+(R*40)+C 

PP=1024+(R*40)+C 

POKE PC,CC:GET ZS:POKE PC,BC 

;IF Z$=""THEN 330 

IF Z$= ,,n THEN 330 



98 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



335 


Z=ASC(ZS) 


680 RETURN 


340 


IF Z=13 OR Z=19 THEN BC=CC 


1000 


REM ILLUSTRATES OPERATOR 




iGOSUB 410:GOSUB 610:RETURN 




CHANGING DATA IN SCREEN BOX 


345 


IF(Z=157 OR Z=20)AND BP>1 THEN 


1100 


PRINT CHR${147) :REM CLEARS SCREEN 




PC=PC-1 : PP=PP-1 : BP=BP-1 : GOTO 330 


1200 


Z$="JANE" : REM ZS CONTAINS DATA 




:REM CURSOR LEFT 




TO FEED INTO SCREEN BOX 


350 


IF Z = 29 AND BP<BL THEN PC=PC+1 


1300 


R=8:C=4:REM POSITIONS BOX AT ROW 




:PP=PP+l:BP=BP+l:GOTO 330 




AND COLUMN 




:REM CURSOR RIGHT 


1400 


BL=10:BC=1 :REM SETS BOX LENGTH 


355 


IF F=l THEN IF Z=47 OR Z < 46 OR 




AND COLOR 




Z > 57 THEN 330 : REM ACCEPTS ONLY 


1500 


GOSUB 210 : REM DISPLAYS DATA IN 




# ' S & 




Z$ 


360 


IF Z=44 OR Z=58 THEN Z=201 


1600 


CC=14;G0SUB 310:REM SETS END 




:GOTO 390: REM CHANGES COMMAS AND 




COLOR OF BOX AND ASKS FOR 




COLONS 




OPERATOR CHANGES 


355 


IF Z = 34 AND BP=1 THEN Z=39 


1700 


PRINT Z$ :REM PRINTS OUT CHANGED 




: REM CHANGES LEADING QUOTES TO 




DATA 




APOSTROPHES 


1800 


END 


370 


IF Z < 32 OR Z > 95 THEN 330 


200 


REM ILLUSTRATES OPERATOR WARNING 




:REM WEEDS OUT UNDESIREABLE 




MESSAGE 




CHARACTERS 


2100 


PRINT CHR$ (147) :REM CLEARS SCREEN 


375 


IF Z > 63 THEN Z=Z-64 


2200 


ZS="TOUCH RETURN TO CONTINUE" 




:REM CONVERTS ASCII TO CHARACTER 




:REM PUTS DATA INTO ZS 




SET 1 POKES 


2303 


R=8:C=4:REM POSITIONS BOX 


380 


Z=Z+128:REM DISPLAYS IN REVERSE 


2400 


BL=24:BC=1 :REM SETS BOX LENGTH 




IMAGE 




AND COLOR 


390 


POKE PP,Z:IF BP<BL THEN BP=BP+1 


2500 


GOSUB 210 : REM DISPLAYS DATA IN 




:PP=PP+1:PC=PC+1:REM POKES & ADDS 




BOX 




TO COUNTERS 


2600 


GET A$:IF AS <> CHR$(13) THEN 


395 


GOTO 330: REM RECYCLES - RETURN 




2600: REM WAITS FOR RETURN KEY 




FROM THIS SUBROUTINE IS IN LINE 340 


2700 


Z$=" " :BC=6:GOSUB 210 


400 


REM SUBROUTINE TO POKE COLOR INTO 




:REM EMPTIES BOX 




SCREEN COLOR MEMORY CELLS 


2800 


END 


410 


PC=55296+(R*40)+C 


3000 


REM ILLUSTRATES OPERATOR 


420 


FOR PC=PC TO PC+BL-1 




CHANGING DATA IN SEVERAL SCREEN 


430 


POKE PC,BC 




BOXES 


450 


NEXT 


3100 


PRINT CHR$(147):REM CLEARS SCREEN 


460 


RETURN 


32C0 


A$=" READY" :B$="SET":C$="GO" 


600 


REM SUBROUTINE TO FEED DATA IN 


3300 


Z$=AS:R=8 :C=4:BL=10:BC=14 




SCREEN BOX TO MEMORY 




:GOSUB 210 


610 


PP=1024+(R*40)+C 


3320 


Z$=B$:R=10:C=24: GOSUB 


615 


Z$=" ":Z1$=" " 




210 


620 


FOR PP=PP TO PP+BL-1: Y=PEEK (PP) 


3340 


Z$=CS:R=12:C=14 : GOSUB 




:REM READS BOX CHARACTER BY 




210 




CHARACTER 


3400 


F=0 :REM SETS FLAG TO ACCEPT 


625 


Y=Y-128:REM CONVERTS TO 




ANYTHING 




NON-REVERSE IMAGE POKES 


3405 


R=8: C=4:BL=10:BC=1:CC=14 


630 


IF Y < 32 THEN Y=Y+64 




:GOSUB 410:GOSUB 310:A$=ZS 




:REM CONVERTS CHARACTER SET 1 


3410 


F=l :REM SETS FLAG TO ACCEPT 




POKES TO ASCII 




ONLY NUMBERS AND DECIMAL POINTS 


635 


Z1$=CHR$(Y) 


3420 


R=10:C=24: BC=1 


640 


Z$=Z$+Z1$:REM ADDS CHARACTERS TO ZS 




: GOSUB 410:GOSUB 310:B$=Z$ 


645 


NEXT 


3433 


IF Z =19 THEN 3400 


650 


FOR Y=LEN(Z$) TO 1 STEP -1 




:REM BACKS UP TO PRIOR BOX 


655 


IF MID$(Z$,Y,1) <>" "THEN 665 


3435 


F=fl :REM RESETS FLAG TO ACCEPT 


660 


NEXT 




ANYTHING 


665 


Z$=LEFT$(Z$,Y) :REM DROPS TRAILING 


3440 


R=12:C=14: BC=1 




SPACES 




: GOSUB 410:G0SUB 310:C$=Z$ 


670 


IF LEFT$(Z$,1)=" "THEN 


3459 


IF Z =19 THEN 3410 




Z$=RIGHT$(Z$,LEN{Z$)-1) :GOTO 670 




:REM BACKS UP TO PRIOR BOX 




: REM DROPS LEAD SPACES 


3 830 


PRINT AS 


675 


IF Z$=""THEN Z$="-" 


3810 


PRINT B$ 




:REM IF STRING IS EMPTY PADS WITH 


3820 


PRINT CS 




ONE HYPHEN 


3900 


END C 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS SepL/Oct. 1964 99 



understanding your computer commodore 54 users only 



Memory Loader/Saver 
for the Commodore 64 



By Bruce Jaeger 

Loading and saving normal BASIC programs are 
easy on the Commodore 64, but the BASIC inter- 
preter doesn't have any easy built-in ways to save 
other portions of memory to the disk. This short 
utility program allows easy loading and saving 
of the more popular areas (the cassette buffer, 
screen and color memories, etc.) and is called 
without any trick)' poking or address calculations. 

Calling the machine language routine is easy. 
First pick the area of memory to save from die 
following table: 



$033C 


to 


S03FB 


Cassette Buffer 


1 S0400 


to 


S03EF 


Screen Memoir 


2S07FB 


to 


SG7FF 


Sprite Pointers 


3 SCOOO 


to 


$C1FF 


Common short ML 
Programs 


4 $C000 


to 


SCFFF 




5 SD800 


to 


SDBFF 


Color RAM 


6 $4000 


to 


$7FFF 


Common Hi-Res Area 


7 SCOOO 


to 


$FFFF 


Protected RAM Area 


8 $0000 


to 


SFFFF 


The Whole Thing! 


9$CABC 


to 


$CBAB 


This Utility Program 



Let's say your program creates a nice graphic dis- 
play and you want to save that screen on the disk. 
Set S$="SAVET' (SAVE because we're saving and 
1 because that's the number in the table for the 
screen memory). Then set N$= the desired file 
name (how about PICTURE) and call the routine: 
SYS (5190Q),S$,N$. That's it! 

Of course, for the example above, you'd also 
want to save the color RAM to reproduce the original 
graphics. Set S$="SAVE5" and N$="COLOR" (or 
whatever name you prefer) and call the routine 
again: SYS (51900),S$,N$. 

To load a section of memory, just change the 
SAVE# to LOAD and set N$ equal to the proper file 
name. (The number isn't necessary after LOAD.) 

You don't have to use S$ or N$ as in the example 
above. Any string names will do, as long as they 
contain the correct information and are in the 
proper order. 

For those who wish to customize this routine for 
their own purposes, the table often beginning and 
ending addresses starts at $CB80 and is in the format 
Low Byte, High Byte (starting address) and Low 
Byte, High Byte (ending address). 



100 REM MEMORY LOADER/SAVER 


2070 


DATA 


32,253,174,32, 158, 173, 160,0 


110 REM LOADER PROGRAM 


2080 


DATA 


177,71, 141, 124,203,200, 177,71 


120 i 






2090 


DATA 


141, 125,203,200, 177,71, 141 , 126 


2000 


FORJ = 


=51900TO52136;READA:POKEJ,A:NEXT 


2100 


DATA 


203, 169, 13,32,211,255, 169, 13 


2010 


DATA 


32,253, 174,32,158, 173,160,0 


2110 


DATA 


162,8, 172, 122,203, 192,76,208 


2020 


DATA 


177,71,200, 177,71,133,253,200 


2120 


DATA 


5, 160, 1,76,28,203, 160,255 


2030 


DATA 


177,71, 133,254,160,0, 177,253 


2130 


DATA 


32, 186,255, 173, 124,203, 174, 125 


2040 


DATA 


141, 122,203,201,76,240, 17, 160 


2140 


DATA 


203, 172, 126,203, 32, 189,255, 173 


2050 


DATA 


4, 177, 253, 201 , 32,208, 4, 200 


2150 


DATA 


122,203,201,76,240,46, 162,4 


2060 


DATA 


76,221,202, 105,207, 141, 123,203 


2160 


DATA 


169,0,141,127,203,173,127,203 



100 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



2170 


DATA 


24, 109, 123, 203, 141 , 127, 203, 202 


2240 


DATA 


169, 13, 32, 21 1 , 255,96, 76, 5 


2180 


DATA 


208,243,174, 127,203, 189, 128,203 


2250 


DATA 


8,150,10,20,60,3,251,3 


2190 


DATA 


133, 251 , 232, 189, 128, 203, 133, 252 


2260 


DATA 


0, 4, 231 , 7, 248, 7, 255, 7 


2200 


DATA 


232, 189, 128,203,72,232, 189, 128 


2270 


DATA 


0, 192,255, 193,0, 192,255,207 


2210 


DATA 


203, 168, 104, 170, 173,122,203,201 


2280 


DATA 


0,216,255,219,0,64,255,127 


2220 


DATA 


76, 208, 8, 169, 0, 32, 2 13, 255 


2290 


DATA 


0, 192,255,255,0,0,255,255 


2230 


DATA 


76, 116,203, 169,251,32,216,255 


2300 


DATA 


IBS, 202, 168, 203, 247 



100 


REM MEMORY SAVER/LOADER 


330 


S*= " S AVE5 " : NAME*= " COLORR AM " 


110 


REM DEMO PROBRAM 


340 


SYS (51900), 5* , NAME* 


120 


REM (ASSUMES ML PROGRAM IN MEMORY) 


350 


: 


130 


s 


360 


REM NOW CLEAR THE SCREEN, AND 


140 


REM SAVES THE SCREEN, 


370 


REM LOAD WHAT WE JUST SAVED. 


150 


REM THEN THE COLOR MEMORY. 


380 


: 


160 


: 


390 


PRINT CHR*(147) 


170 


REM (YOUR OWN FANCY SRAPHICS 


400 


S*= " LO AD 1 " : N AME*= " SCREEN " 


180 


REM WOULD BE HERE) 


410 


SYS (51900), S* , NAME* 


190 


' 


420 


S*= " LOADS " : N AME*= " COLORRAM » 


200 


PRINTCHR* ( 147) : P0KE53262, 21 


430 


SYS ( 51 900 ) , S* , NAME* 


210 


POKE53280, 0! P0KE532S1 , 


440 


: 


220 


FORX=1TO200 


450 


PRINT CHR* ( 19 >CHR*<18>' 'PRESS ANY KEY" 


230 


: R=INT(RND(1)*1000>+1 


460 


WAIT 198,1 : SETA* : END 


240 


: C=1NT(RND(1)*16) 






250 


: K=INT(RND(1)*128)+127 






260 


: POKE 1024+R,K 






270 


: POKE 55296+R,C 






280 


NEXTX 






290 


: 






300 


S*= " SAVE 1 ": NAME*=" SCREEN" 






310 


SYS ( 5 1 900 ) , S* , N AME* 






320 


" 







COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct, 1984 



101 



MEM.S. 


PAGE 


0002 










LINE** 


LOG 


CODE 




LINE 








00056 


CB1A 


A0 


FF 




SASET 


LDY #$FF 


? 


NO SEC. ADDRESS FOR SAVES 


00057 


CB1C 


20 


BA 


FF 


SECSKP 


JSR SETLFS 


: 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


00058 


CB1F 


AD 


7C 


CB 


LDA 


NMLEN 


f 


FOR KERNAL SETNAM 


00059 


CB22 


AE 


7D 


CB 


LDX 


NAMELO 


5 


FILENAME LOW BYTE 


00060 


CB25 


AC 


7E 


CB 


LDY 


NAMEHI 


5 


HIBH BYTE 


00061 


CB28 


20 


BD 


FF 


JSR 


SETNAM 


5 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


00062 


CB2B 


AO 


7A 


CB 


LDA 


DECIDE 






00063 


CB2E 


C9 


4C 




CMP 


#76 


5 


LOAD? 


00064 


CB30 


F0 


2E 




BED 


NONUMS 


? 


NOT NECESSARY FOR LOADS 


00065 


CB32 


A2 


04 




LDX 


#04 


5 


MULTIPLIER 


00066 


CB34 


A9 


00 




LDA 


#00 






00067 


CB36 


8D 


7F 


CB 


STA 


INDEX 


5 


ZERO INDEX 


00068 


CB39 


AD 


7F 


CB 


LOOP 


LDA INDEX 


i 


MULTIPLIES BY 4 


00069 


CB3C 


18 






CLC 




3 


TO GET THE CORRECT 


00070 


CB3D 


6D 


7B 


CB 


ADC 


AREA 


ji 


INDEX INTO THE ADDRESS 


00071 


CB40 


8D 


7F 


CB 


STA 


INDEX 


5 


TABLE 


00072 


CB43 


CA 






DEX 








00073 


CB44 


D0 


F3 




BNE 


LOOP 






00074 


CB46 


AE 


7F 


CB 


LDX 


INDEX 






00075 


CB49 


BD 


80 


CB 


LDA 


TABLE, X 


5 


GET START ADDRESS LOW BYTE 


00076 


CB4C 


85 


FB 




STA 


*FB 






00077 


CB4E 


E8 






INX 








00078 


CB4F 


BD 


80 


CB 


LDA 


TABLE, X 


5 


GET START ADDRESS HIGH BYTE 


00079 


CB52 


85 


FC 




STA 


*FC 






00080 


CB54 


E8 






INX 








00081 


CB55 


BD 


80 


CB 


LDA 


TABLE, X 


$ 


GET END ADDRESS LOW BYTE 


00082 


CB58 


48 






PHA 




? 


SAVE IT ON STACK 


00083 


CB59 


E8 






INX 








00084 


CB5A 


BD 


80 


CB 


LDA 


TABLE, X 


5 


GET END ADDRESS HIGH BYTE 


00085 


CB5D 


A8 






TAY 




% 


PUT IT IN Y INDEX 


00086 


CB5E 


68 






PLA 




\ 


RETRIEVE THE LOW BYTE 


00087 


CB5F 


AA 






TAX 




9 


PUT IT IN X INDEX 


00088 


CB60 


AD 


7A 


CB 


NONUMS 


LDA DECIDE 






00089 


CB63 


C9 


4C 




CMP 


#76 


5 


LOAD? 


00090 


CB65 


D0 


08 




BNE 


LDSK IP 


5 


NO, 60 TO SAVE 


00091 


CB67 


A9 


00 




LDA 


#00 






00092 


CB69 


20 


D5 


FF 


JSR 


LOAD 


5 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


00093 


CB6C 


4C 


74 


CB 


J MP 


DONE 






00094 


CB6F 


A9 


FB 




LDSK I P 


LDA #*FB 


5 


LOW BYTE LOCATION 


00095 


CB71 


20 


D8 


FF 


JSR 


SAVE 


5 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


00096 


CB74 


A9 


0D 




DONE 


LDA #13 


5 


FILE ### 


00097 


CB76 


20 


D3 


FF 


JSR 


CLOSE 


9 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


00098 


CB79 


60 






RTS 








00099 


CB7A 








; VARIABLES *********** 




00100 


CB7A 








DECIDE 


*=* + l 






00101 


CB7B 








AREA 


* = * + l 






00102 


CB7C 








NMLEN 


*=*+l 






00103 


CB7D 








NAMELD 


*=* + l 






00104 


CB7E 








NAMEHI 


*=* + l 






00105 


CB7F 








INDEX 


* = * + l 






00106 


CB80 








TABLE 




; 


****************** 


00107 


CB80 


3C 


03 




.WORD 


*033C, *03FB 


5 


"0" CASSETTE BUFFER 


00107 


CB82 


FB 


03 












00108 


CBB4 


00 


04 




.WORD 


*0400, *07E7 


m 


"1" SCREEN 


00108 


CB86 


E7 


07 













102 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



PASS2 


















00001 


0000 








COMMA 


= *AEFD 


5 


ROM ROUTINE 


00002 


0000 








EVAL 


= *AD9E 


» 


ROM ROUTINE 


00003 


0000 








DCZLO 


= *00FD 


r 


START OF STRING 


00004 


0000 








DCZHI 


= *00FE 






00005 


0000 








PTR 


= *0047 






00006 


0000 








SETLFS 


= *FFBA 


: 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


00007 


0000 








SETNAM 


= 4FFBD 


| 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


00008 


0000 








SAVE 


= <fcFFD8 


J 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


00009 


0000 








LOAD 


= *FFD5 


5 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


00010 


0000 








CLOSE 


= $FFD3 


3 


KERNAL ROUTINE 


000 i 1 


0000 








*=*CABC 


5 


START AT *CABC (51900 DECIMAL) 


00012 


CABC 


20 


FD 


AE 


JSR 


COMMA 


5 


FIND COMMA 


00013 


CABF 


20 


9E 


AD 


JSR 


EVAL 


J 


EVALUATE EXPRESSION 


00014 


CAC2 


A0 


00 




LDY 


#00 






00015 


CAC4 


Bl 


47 




LDA 


<PTR) ,Y 


5 


GET LENGTH OF STRING 


00016 


CAC6 


C8 






I NY 








00017 


CAC7 


Bl 


47 




LDA 


(PTR) ,Y 


5 


GET START OF STRING 


00018 


CAC9 


B5 


FD 




STA 


DCZLO 


5 


(LOW BYTE) 


00019 


CACB 


C8 






I NY 








00020 


CACC 


Bl 


47 




LDA 


(PTR),Y 


5 


(HIGH BYTE) 


00021 


CAGE 


85 


FE 




STA 


DCZHI 






00022 


CAD0 


A0 


00 




LDY 


#0 






00023 


CAD 2 


Bl 


FD 




LDA 


(DCZLO) ,Y 


: 


GET FIRST CHARACTER 


00024 


CAD4 


8D 


7A 


CB 


STA 


DECIDE 


* 


SAVE IT FOR LATER 


00025 


CAD7 


C9 


4C 




CMP 


#76 


j 


AN L? 


00026 


CAD9 


F0 


11 




BEQ 


GETNAM 






00027 


CADB 


A0 


04 




LDY 


#4 






00028 


CABD 


Bl 


FD 




SETCH 


LDA (DCZLO), Y 


3 


SET SECOND CHARACTER 


00029 


CADF 


C9 


20 




CMF 


#32 


f 


A SPACE? 


00030 


CAE1 


D0 


04 




BNE 


NOSPC 


* 


SKIP OVER SPACE ROUTINE 


00031 


CAE3 


CS 






INY 








00032 


CAE4 


4C 


DD 


CA 


J MP 


GETCH 






00033 


C-AE7 


69 


CF 




NOSPC 


ADC #207 


9 


OFFSET FROM ASCII 


00034 


CAE9 


8D 


7B 


CB 


STA 


AREA 


j 


MEMORY AREA TO SAVE 


00035 


CAEC 


20 


FD 


AE 


SETNAM 


JSR COMMA 


9 


FIND COMMA 


00036 


CAEF 


20 


9E 


AD 


JSR 


EVAL 


? 


EVALUATE EXPRESSION 


00037 


CAF2 


A0 


00 




LDY 


#00 






00038 


CAF4 


Bl 


47 




LDA 


(PTR) ,Y 


5 


GET LENGTH OF NAME STRING 


00039 


CAF6 


8D 


7C 


CB 


STA 


NMLEN 


5 


SAVE IT 


00040 


CAF9 


C8 






INY 








00041 


CAFA 


Bl 


47 




LDA 


(PTR) ,Y 


5 


GET START OF STRING 


00042 


CAFC 


8D 


7D 


CB 


STA 


NAMELO 


* 


(LOW BYTE) 


00043 


CAFF 


C8 






INY 








00044 


CB00 


Bl 


47 




LDA 


(PTR) , Y 


5 


(HIGH BYTE) 


00045 


CB02 


8D 


7E 


CB 


STA 


NAMEHI 






00047 


CB05 


A 9 


0D 




LDA 


#13 


5 


FOR FILE 13 


00048 


CB07 


20 


D3 


FF 


JSR 


CLOSE 


5 


CLOSE FILE 13 


00049 


CB0A 


A9 


0D 




LDA 


#13 


5 


FILE ### 


00050 


CB0C 


A2 


08 




LDX 


#08 


5 


DEVICE ### 


00051 


CB0E 


AC 


7A 


CB 


LDY 


DECIDE 






00052 


CB11 


C0 


4C 




CPY 


#76 


? 


L FOR LOAD? 


00053 


CB13 


D0 


05 




BNE 


SASET 


y 


NO, SKIP SECONDARY ADDRESS 


00054 


CB15 


A0 


01 




LDY 


#01 


I 


SET SECONDARY ADDRESS=1 


00055 


CB17 


4C 


1C 


CB 


J MP 


5ECSKP 







COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



103 



MEM.S PAGE 0003 

LINE# LOC CODE 



ERRORS = 00000 



SYMBOL TABLE 



SYMBOL VALUE 



LINE 



00109 


CB88 


FB 


07 


.WORD 


*07F8, 


*07FF 


_ II O M 


SPRITE POINTERS 


00109 


CB8A 


FF 


07 












00110 


CB8C 


00 


C0 


-WORD 


*C000, 


*C1FF 


. „ 3 ., 


COMMON ML PRGS 


00110 


CB8E 


FF 


CI 












00111 


CB90 


00 


C0 


-WORD 


*C000, 


*CFFF 


■■411 




00111 


CB92 


FF 


CF 












00112 


CB94 


00 


D8 


.WORD 


*D800. 


*DBFF 


; "5" 


COLOR RAM 


00112 


CB96 


FF 


DB 












00113 


CB98 


00 


40 


.WORD 


*4000, 


*7FFF 


; "6" 


COMMON HI -RES AREA 


00113 


CB9A 


FF 


7F 












00114 


CB9C 


00 


C0 


-WORD 


$C000, 


4FFFF 


B it -y 11 




00114 


CB9E 


FF 


FF 












00115 


CBA0 


00 


00 


.WORD 


*0000, 


SFFFF 


. M S .. 


THE WHOLE THINS' 


00115 


CBA2 


FF 


FF 












00116 


CBA4 


BC 


CA 


• WORD 


SCABC, 


*CBA8 


. „ 9 ,. 


THIS PROGRAM 


00116 


CBA6 


AS 


CB 












00117 


CBA9 






.END 











AREA 


CB7B 


CLOSE 


FFD3 


COMMA 


AEFD 


DCZHI 


00FE 


DCZLO 


00FD 


DECIDE 


CB7A 


DONE 


CB74 


EVAL 


AD9E 


GETCH 


CADD 


SETNAM 


CAEC 


INDEX 


CB7F 


LDSKIP 


CB6F 


LOAD 


FFD5 


LOOP 


CB39 


NAMEHI 


CB7E 


NAMELO 


CB7D 


NMLEN 


CB7C 


NONUMS 


CB60 


NOSPC 


CAE7 


PTR 


0047 


SASET 


CB1A 


SAVE 


FFD8 


SECSKP 


CB1C 


SETLFS 


FFBA 


SETNAM 


FFBD 


TABLE 


CB80 











END OF ASSEMBLY 



READY. 



ATTENTION COMMODORE 64 OWNERS: 

We'll print what's on your screen 
with SCREEN DUMPER 64 ™ 

How would you like to have a copy of all of the tcxi or graphics displayed on your 
screen (even prints out pictures from the Koala'' Pad). Well SCREEN 
DUMPER 64™ will transfer what you see on the screen ( includes text, hi-rcsolution 
graphics, and multi-color sprites) to your printer *. The best part of this program is its 
ability to reside in a hidden area that will not steal memory from most programs. This 
means that you can use your computer normally and simply press the proper key 
sequence to print the screen (even those of many popular graphic games). And the 
most fantastic part is its low price of: 

mm. lA / $29.95 • — 

§WM§CrO u rVm 1342 B Route #23, Butler, N.J. 07405 

DISTRIBUTING. INC CALL: (201) 838-9027 

•SCREEN DUMPER 64" works with (he standard Commodore" printer and most matrix 
printers that use an intelligent interface such as the MICRO WORLD MW 350, Tymac 
Connection, and others. 




Dumps Pictures to Your Printer * 



Circle Reader Service No. 17 



Appending Machine Code Routines 
to Your BASIC Programs 
on the Commodore 64 



By Roger S, Macomber 

Often, during the composition 
of a large BASIC program, it be- 
comes desirable to write sections 
of the program in machine lan- 
guage and append them to the 
main program. Such appended 
subroutines can then be accessed 
by a SYS command. 

Once the machine coded sub- 
routine has been written and 
debugged using an assembly lan- 
guage monitor, the question Is 
how to best transfer the sequence 
of bytes into the BASIC program. 
One technique involves the tem- 
porary addition of a short set of in- 
structions in the BASIC program 
which allows the machine code to 
be entered manually byte by byte 
and poked into the appropriate 
space reserved at the end of the 
BASIC program. For even rela- 
tively short subroutines of 100 
bytes or so, this can be a tedious, 
error-filled exercise. For longer 
subroutines, it can be all but im- 
possible. The technique described 
below greatly facilitates error-free 
transfer of a machine coded rou- 
tine of N bytes from your assembly 
language monitor to an existing 
BASIC program. 

To prepare the BASIC program, 
make sure it has space for six tem- 
porary instructions at its begin- 
ning. Run your assembly monitor, 
assemble the machine coded sub- 
routine and check that it ends with 
an RTS command (decimal 96) as 
the Nth byte. Note the memory 
address of the first instruction of 
the sequence. When using Super- 
rnon, for example, I always use 
location $1300 (decimal 4864) to 



begin a machine code routine. 
Next, exit the monitor and return 
to BASIC without disturbing the 
subroutine. (With Supermon the 
appropriate command is "X".) 
Now LOAD and RUN the program 
below which you've previously 
stored on disk: 



Appending 1 


10 


REM WRITE MACHINE 




CODE ON DISK 


20 


PRINT" INSERT DISK" 


25 


INPUT H ENTER FILE 




NAME";FF$ 


30 


INPUT"ENTER NUMBER 




OF BYTES" ;N 


40 


OPEN 8,8,8,"@0:"+FF$ 




+",S t W" 


50 


FOR 1=4864 TO 4863+N 


60 


PRINT#8,PEEK(I) : 




PRINT PEEK(I) ; :NEXT 


70 


PRINT#8:CL0SE 8:END 



After you enter a file name and 
the number of bytes, the machine 
code sequence will be stored on 
disk and printed on the screen. 

The next step is to reset the 
computer with a SYS 64759 com- 
mand and to load the BASIC pro- 
gram to which the subroutine will 
be appended. By peeking in loca- 
tions 45 and 46, determine the 
location of the end of the BASIC 
program and poke in a value N 
bytes greater. For example, if the 
contents of 45 and 46 are 223 and 
9 (pointing to location 2527) and 
N is 105, POKE 72 and 10 (pointing 
to 2632) into 45 and 46. This re- 
serves a block of space for the N 
bytes of machine code which will 



become a permanent part of the 
BASIC program. Now add the fol- 
lowing temporary instructions to 
your BASIC program, using the 
numerical value of N: 

Appending 2 



2 


S1=256*PEEK{46)+PEEK 




( 4 5 ) -N 


3 


INPUT"INSERT DISK: 




ENTER FILE NAME"; FF$ 


4 


OPEN 8,8,8,"0:"+FF$+" 




,S,R" 


5 


FOR 1=0 TO N-l: INPUT* 




8,BT 


6 


POKE S1+I,BT:FRINT BT 




:NEXT 


7 


CLOSE 8:ST0P 



To complete the transfer, run 
the BASIC program and enter the 
same file name you used when 
you wrote the file on disk. When 
the transfer is complete, delete in- 
structions three through seven, 
but retain two. Finally, wherever in 
the BASIC program you wish to 
call the newly appended sub- 
routine, add the instruction SYS 
SI. And don't forget to save the 
resulting program! C 






COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 105 



understanding your computer pef/cbm users only 



Line Formatting 



By Joe Rotello 



As users or programmers, we have all had a need 
for some form of neatly organized video screen or 
printer output so we could display our data or com- 
bined string/numeric output on the same line. 

There are presently a variety of methods to do 
this, some being hardware-based (i.e., those com- 
puters capable of using PRINT USING commands) 
and some software-based. Situations might arise 
where you have a Commodore computer that will 
output to a printer that may or may not be a CBM 
brand printer. 

We know that CBM printers offer line formatting 
via special printer addresses and the like. So, how 
do we allow the creation of formatted lines on a 
non-Commodore printer? 

Our second situation is where we have to display 
a formatted line both to the CBM video screen and 
to the CBM printer. OK, most of us say "easy to do", 
but really, is it? (True, it depends on one's definition 
of easy.) 

We can format to the CBM video by using TAB, 
SPC and the like, but when we try to send the same 
data to the printer, both CBM and non-CBM printers 
have troubles accepting the data exactly as received. 
It sometimes ends up looking bad and takes extra 
programming to format one way for the video dis- 
play and then go out and format another way for 
the printer. 

CBM dot matrix printers have their own format- 
ting directives and commands and do make the job 
of printer formatting much easier. But, again, have 
you ever tried to format both the PET/CBM video 
and CBM printer with the same program lines? 

The bottom line here is that there must be a fairly 
easy, fast and efficient way to format both the video 
and the printer at the same time, so that by simply 
directing the data output to one or the other, format- 
ted lines results. 

Well, there is an easier way that does cover most 
situations and this method is fairly failsafe. If you do 
not follow the few rules somewhat closely, you may 
run into a bit of trouble, but it's nothing too major. 

What we are going to do is format the data in 
memory rather than in the printer. In this method, 



the following features are available: 

1. The format lines are, in general, the same for 
both the video screen and the printer. 

2. Format commands are merely exercises in string 
management utilizing LEFT$, RIGHT$ and so on. 

3. Format lines can be-implemented in BASIC and 
tailored to 40- or 80-column widths. 

4. Left-justify alphanumeric strings and right-justify 
numeric strings. We will discuss this in detail 
later on. 

5. The format commands are quick to operate, 
easy to understand once you know what they do 
and do not involve overly-complicated BASIC 
source code. 

As you can see, not a panacea for all of our 
programming ills, but nonetheless a step in the 
right direction. 

The program outlined here is somewhat "instruc- 
tional" in nature and you can build on it for your 
own uses. Our example program contains some 
extras that you probably will not use in your ver- 
sion. We used them in order to make our sample 
video display a little more readable. 

What We do 

As you may have gathered, what we are doing is 
formatting or padding our data by inserting spaces 
at the appropriate points so that regardless of the ac- 
tual length of the incoming (or raw) data, the data 
(after formatting) is always transformed into equal 
string lengths. 

Once we have equal string lengths, it becomes an 
easy task to place them on a common line, arrange 
them in the desired order and print them. Since 
we are actually formatting our data in memory and 
without TAB, SPC or other commands, the same for- 
matted string can be used in both video screen dis- 
plays and the printer hard copy. 

OK, let's define two rules. As mentioned above, 
alphanumeric data, which could be such data as 
name, address, city or state (or any similar data) 
should be left-justified, that is, the left side of 



106 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1964 



the data lines up flush with the first logical print- 
ing column. 

Conversely, numeric data, say dollars/cents as 
in $123-45 or an integer as in 9100, will be right- 
justified. In that manner, any decimal points line 
up towards the right hand of the data or flush right. 

After formatting our data, we can van' where we 
want it to print on the output line simply by insert- 
ing spaces (spaces are preferred even though they 
use up more memory) into the line PRINT com- 
mands, between the actual formatted data. We 
do discourage the use of the TAB function. For 
example, when formatting don't say: 

PRINT NAME$;MEMBERS;TAB(55);AMOUNT$ 
Instead say: 

PRINT NAME$;"[20 spaces]";MEMBER$;" 
[15 spaces]";AMOUNT$ 

You could TAB at the start of our formatted line, 
even if the format is intended for the printer. Just do 
not TAB anywhere else. In fact, use spaces instead. 
Some non-CBM printers will not understand the 
TAB statement correctly anyway. 

By the way, our program comments and REMS are 
there just to make the description of the process a 
little simpler. Feel free to experiment on your own 
and fit the concepts to your programming needs. 
You may even wish to justify different data in a dif- 
ferent manner. Each situation maybe different than 
the one we present here. 

The program was intended for our 8032 (80- 
column) CBM, but you can modify it for 40-column 
work by making the appropriate changes. We will 
note them later on in our discussion. 

A situation you will run into on 40-column video 
work is that the printer output will usually be 80 
columns in nature. So, you will have to sometimes 
write two formatted lines into your program. One 
line to send the 40-column formatted data to the 
screen and the second to send 80-column formatted 
data to the printer. You might want to set up some 
code where the output device address (3 = video, 
4 = printer) is selected and the appropriate format 
routine called. 

Numbers and Spaces 

The rule of thumb in setting up the format lines 
themselves is shown in line 220 of the example pro- 
gram. We intend the maximum length of the data 
to be formatted to be 25 characters. So, code in 25 
spaces (as we did) and the last numeric argument of 
the routine will be 25. This same logic can be seen 
in lines 260 and 290, regardless of whether the data 
is to be left- or right-justified. In fact, the difference 
between left and right justification will be the 
placement of the spaces. Left justification involves 



padding to die right of the data and right justifica- 
tion involves padding to the left of the data. 
Lets go over the example program line by line: 

Line 60 Clears the video screen, defines xz$ as 
our cursor movement string and sets K, 
our loop flag, to an initial value of one. 

Line 70 Build CL$, our column number display, to 
a length of 80 characters. For 40-column 
screens, change the code from "FOR I = 
1 to 8" to "FOR I = 1 to 4" and the col- 
umn display will build to 40 columns. 

Lines 90-130 Allow the user to select the video 
screen or printer as the output device 
(3=screen, 4=printer) and open the 
channel to the selected device. 

Line 150 Begins our data entry loop, starting off 
with NAME$. 

Line 160 Checks the NAMES just entered and if the 
user enters END as the NAME?, closes the 
device channel and ends the program exe- 
cution. If not, the program continues on. 

Lines 170-180 Continue the data input loop. 

Line 220 Left-justifies the NAMES so that any length 
string in the range of one to 25 characters 
long is padded to the right with the re- 
quired number of spaces (or blanks). In 
this manner, the end result NAME$ is 
always the same length. 

Line 260 Very much the same logic is applied here. 
But since we want to right-justify the 
numeric variable (our example assumes 
dollars/cents input) format, we now re- 
verse our logic and pad the required 
number of spaces to the beginning of the 
incoming (raw) AMOUNTS and right- 
justify the end result (outgoing) AMOUNTS. 

Line 290 Armed with the above knowledge, the 
treatment of MEMBERS should now be 
self-explanatory. 

Line 320 Checks to see if the example screen col- 
umn display has already been printed. If 
so, skip to line 400. 

Lines 350-370 Print the screen column display. For 
40-column displays, end the display print 
with "40" instead of the "80" shown. 

Line 400 Moves the cursor to the proper location 
on the screen and allows us to stack up 
our example listings in a neat, orderly 
manner so we can see the action of out- 
line formatter over various inputs. Most 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



107 



printers will properly ignore this code so 
there is no need to treat the printer dif- 
ferently in this case. 

Lines 450, 480, 500 Three example ways to print 
the newly formatted data. Remove the 
REM statement from the line you would 
like to try out. Note the use of the TAB 
statement in line 480, along with eight 
spaces printed between the data instead 
of ten spaces. 

Line Formatter 



Line 530 Increments the video screen counter and 
goes back for another data entry run. 

Taps 

Well, so goes the Line Formatter. It is deceptively 
simple and does save a lot of time, especially for 
those blessed with an 80-column CBM and any 
printer that I can think of, be it CBM or not. 

I have used the above approach on just about 
every program I do and have yet to see where it 
might fail to perform as advertised. 



Ifl REM LINE FORMATTER 28!! 

20 : 290 
30 REM "[SHFT N,SHFT f SHFT T, 

SHFT E] : PRINTERS WILL IGNORE 300 

4 REM CODE IN LINE 400 310 

50 : 

50 PRINT" [CLEAR] " : XZ$=" [ D0WN1 0] " :K=1 320 

70 FOR 1=1 TO 3:CL$=CL$+"1234557890" 330 

:NEXT 340 

80 : 350 
90 PRINT" [SHFT 0] UTPUT TO 

: [RVS,SHFT V,RVOFF]IDEO OR [RVS, 3ofi 

SHFT P r RVOFF] RINTER ? "; 370 

100 GET A$:IF A$<>"V"AND A$<>"P"THEN 380 

100 390 
110 IF A$="V"THEN X=3 

120 IF AS="P"TH£N X=4 400 
130 OPEN 4,X 

140 : 410 

150 INPUT" [HOME, D0WN3]NAME 420 

: [SPACES]"; NAMES 

160 IF LEFT$(NAMES, ')="END" THEM 430 

PRINTS 4 -.CLOSE 4 : PRINT" [CLEAR] " : END 

170 INPUT"AM0UNT[SPACE2] : "; AMOUNTS 440 

1B0 INPUT'MEMBER It: "; MEMBERS 4 50 
190 : 

200 REM FORMAT 25 CHR MAX STRING 460 

210 REM LEFT JUSTIFY PADS RIGHT OF 470 

THE STRING 430 
22fi NAM£$=LEFTS(NAMES+" [SPACE251 ",25) 

230 : 490 

240 REM FORMAT 9 CHR MAX STRING 500 
250 REM RIGHT JUSTIFY PADS LEFT OF 

THE STRING 510 

2fi0 AM0UNT$=RIGHTS("[SPACE9]"+AM0UNTS, 520 

9> 

270 : 530 



REM FORMAT 3 CHR MAX STRING 
MEMBER$=LEFT$(MEMBER$+" [SPACE3J ", 
3) 

REM SCREEN CONTROL FLAG FOR 
EXAMPLE PRG ONLY 

IF K>1 THEN 400 

REN PRINT COLUMN SCALE 
PRINT" [SPACE9] 1 [SPACE9] 2[SPACE9] 3 
(SPACE9] 4[SPACE9] 5[SPACE9] 6"; 
PRINT" [SPACE9] 7[SPACE9] 8" 
PRINT" [UP] ";CL$ 

REM VIDEO SCREEN CURSOR CONTROL 

FOR TESTING 

PRINT" [HOME, DOWN 5] " 

:PRINT LEFT$(XZ$,K) 

REM PRINT DATA IN ANY ORDER, 

INSERT SPACES WHERE NEEDED 
REM EXAMPLE PRINT 10 SPACES 
BETWEEN DATA 

REM PRINTS4, MEMBERS; " [SPACElvl] "; 
NAMES; "[SPACE 10]" j AMOUNTS 

REM 'OTHER COMBINATIONS YOU CAN TRY 
REV PRINT! 4, TAB (20) ; AMOUNTS;" 
[SPACES] ".-NAMES;" [SPACE3] " .-MEMBERS 

REM PRINT*4,NAMES$;" [SPACE10] " ; 
AMOUNTS;" [SPACE101 "; MEMBERS 

REM INCREMENT VIDEO COUNTER AND 

CONTINUE 

K=K+l:GOTO 150 C 



108 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 198-4 




Mastering Your VIC-20 

Mastering Your Commodore 64 

The 8 programs, "run-ready" on disk (C-64) or 
tape (VIC-20) and explained in the 160-192 page 
book, each demonstrate important concepts of 
BASIC while providing useful, enjoyable software. 
Programs include: 

• Player — compose songs from your keyboard, 
save, load and edit for perfect music 

• MicroCaic — display calculation program that 
make even complex operations easy 

• Master — a one or two person guessing game 

• Clock — character graphics for a digital clock 

VIC-20 with tape & book just $19.95 

C-64 with disk & book (avail. Sept.) just $19.95 



Look for us at the 

International Software Show 

Toronto, September 20-23 



MICROCalc for C-64 

This on-screen calculator comes with diskette and 
48-page manual offering a wide variety of useful 
screens, and a great way to learn BASIC expressions 
if you don't already know them. 

• Unlimited calculation length & complexity 

• Screens can be linked and saved on disk/cassette 

• Build a library of customized screens 

• Provide formatted printer output 

Diskette & 48-page manual just $29.95 



For the Freshest Books, Buy Direct! 

• No prehandied books with bent corners 

• Books come direct to your door 

• No time wasted searching store to store 

• 24 hours from order receipt to shipment 

• No shipping/handling charges 

• No sales tax (except 5% MA res.) 

• Check, MO, VISA/MC accepted (prepaid only) 



Circle Reader Service No.18 



The Computerist Bookcart 

P.O. Box 6502, Chelmsford, MA 01824 
For faster service, phone: 617/256-3649. 



understanding your computer superper users only 



SuperPET Potpourri 



Bv Dick Barnes 



When first you encounter 
SuperPET's languages, you must 
learn how to leave nested loops. 
You also must cope with the ex- 
ternal switches on SuperPET. A lot 
of my mail asks about both. Maybe 
the answers below will help. 

Some of you tell me that struc- 
tured programs are a bushel of 
bother to write ("Gee, you draw 
flow diagrams for a week. Then 
you write a page of code.") Some 
books and some teachers indeed 
handle it that way; structure itself 
becomes a straightjacket and a 
fetish. I won't and don't. Structure 
is a tool not an end in itself and 
though many of us find structured 
code simpler and easier to write 
than unstructured code, others 
find it hard and slow. 




In SuperPET we have the best of 
both worlds. We can write mFOR- 
TRAN, mBASIC and 6809 assembly 
language programs as we wish. If 
we like structure, we have it; if not, 
it isn't demanded. Those who pro- 
gram in assembly language should 
read Listing 1, which compares 
SuperPET's structured assembly 
language with unvarnished 6809 
mnemonic code. Which do you 
prefer? SuperPET's assembler 
accepts code both ways. 

Last, good news. You may now 
print APL from SuperPET to a 
Commodore 8023, or to FX and 




Dick Banws 
Example 1 



MX Epson printers (see sample 
character set, Listing 2) thanks to 
Steve Zeller of Washington, D.C., 
Reginald Beck of Williams Lake, 
B.C., and to Delton P. Richardson 
of Norcross, Georgia, who devel- 
oped the methods and have made 
them available to evervone. 

Dealing with Loops 

Though jumping out of a FOR. . . 
NEXT loop before it's finished is a 
no-no in Commodore BASIC, you 
can leave any loop in mBASIC and 
mFORTRAN at will, with one or 
many tests for specific EXIT condi- 
tions. In Example 1, we "linput" a 
whole line at a time from an index 
on drive zero and quit the FOR. . . 
NEXT loop either at end-of-fi!e or 
at "blocks free." If you don't like 
structure or indentation, write it 
with GOTOs — which are, how- 
ever, often slower than FOR. . . 
NEXT loops, which are by far the 
fastest of all loop structures. (To 
make examples clear, I use no line 
numbers and indicate deleted, 
irrelevant code with ".. .". Italics 
emphasize important lines; "!" sets 
off a comment.) 



loop 

for i = 1 to 255 

linput #30, directory$(i) 

if io status <> then quit 

if i dx(dir ecbor y$(i), "BLOCKS FREE") then quit 

next i 

...process the strings 

... ! how do you quit the outer loop? 
endloop ! Outer loop prints several files in one 
run. 



110 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct 1984 



The DO loops of mFORTRAN 
you leave with "quitif <condi- 
tion>."; loops in structured as- 
sembly language, with "quif 
<condition>". Whatever the lan- 
guage, your program then exe- 
cutes the first line of code after the 
end of loop (above, the line fol- 
lowing "next i"). Frequently you 
must set flags to get fully clear of 

Example 2 



nested loops, as in the example 
above, where we want to quit the 
outer loop as soon as we've pro- 
cessed the last string from disk. So 
we set -a flag in the FOR. . . NEXT 
loop and depart both inner and 
outer loops if that flag has value, 
as in Example 2 (variable "lastfile" 
decrements as several files 
are printed). 



loop 
for. , . 

linput #30, directory$(i) 
if io status <> then f lag=1 
if idx(directory$, "BLOCKS FREE") t hen flag=1 
if flag then quit 
next. . . 

if lastfile=>1 then flag=0 
, . .process the strings 
if flag then quit 
endloop 



You'll often find you need two 
or three flags (flagl, flag2, flag3, 
etc.) to leave nested loops where 
and when you want. Flags are 
powerful and simple to use. 

A Detour 

Are you puzzled by the "idx" 
and horrified by the "directory!" 
above? Let's detour to "idx" first. 
It reports where a substring 
starts within a larger string. If 
wbereS = #April Showers", then 
idx (where $, ' 'Showers "), eq u als 
seven — the number of characters 
from start-of-string to the "S". 
Sometimes — as in the examples 
above — we don't care where the 
substring is, but only wonder if it's 

Example 3 



there at all. If it's not, "idx" reports 
a big fat zero and an "if idx. .." 
then fails. Function "index" in 
mFORTRAN works the same way. 
Suppose we want to mail form 
letters with a personal "Dear Mrs. 
Jones" to everybody on our mail- 
ing list — except (whoops!) to the 
name of a firm. "Dear Bailey Bars 
and Bolts:" for example, accuses 
Bailey of bolting. And we know 
that doctors and other profession- 
als often are proud of their titles. 
Inevitably we must screen our 
mail list. Shown in Example 3 is a 
small part of a such a screen, using 
"idx" (for clarity, I don't bother 
with the last name). 



loop 



data "Mr.", "Ms.", "Mrs.", "Miss " 

for jjS=1 to 4 
read person$ 
if idx(mailist$, person$) (Continued On Next Page) 



STUDENT 
SCHEDULING 

SCHEDULE JUNIOR 

OR 

SENIOR HIGH 



• OVERNIGHT 
TURNAROUND 

• REDUCED 
EXPENSE 

COMMODORE 8032 COMPUTER 
AND 8050 DISK DRIVE 

The Mainframe System 
That Runs on A Micro 

COW BAY COMPUTING 

Box 515 

Manhasset, New York 1 1030 
(516)365^1423 

Circle Reader Service No. 19 



COMMODORE 
-I'SEK WRITTES SOFIWARE- 

Supporting all COMMODORE computer 

Written by usart, for um 

* GAMES * OT]LmEJJe_EpUCATIONAL_#_ 

VIC 80™ 

Vic 20 collections i 1.2,3.4.5.6 

over 70 programs per collecnqn - Tapo/Diik - SI 0.00 

Vic 20 cotteclionj » 7, 8. 9 
over 50 programs per collection- Tape/Disk- $10.00 

VIC 30 COLLECTION .1 

AO Cpi [S6j»ai T*^3K * Bn« to o.rr# o.i'iris.ip in»i 

HiliFMhip-F-roge B.rc^a Q.nnaj* Circle EIutui Drop 

l' i I. trill. J * FlOV.1 • .» i'5 .',» I :. •' i :■ ! « i : .- :!;■" 

ProgtBuiinHi C .tma*Ciih FlcwVCod. Preencs 

ColbT Milrl C^OtM* t}ec.S.or! M*ke. • DcI'M Sl.IV 
D.k $odb Pnr|#Eri»w»E.iC 2 • F/S Anjly4>F« Glungv 
Towsnjfl &..»&- Cheat* Gunners* Hi s C or*#iFtA*Juit- 

Cf-utk Luci»L(zplTcg« telle. Pu|{le« t.'s 2 Sa-Mtmon, 
■ O ".' ; : :■'.-. v ■ : ■ c Mulic P»odue*. 
V»t..»p», Cj:t • Pj.rs. CairaQSO '.vl Q..o..ikL 

(.*,.!# komen NumOTli* Sal. Cwtrt ODMC-Wat 
'-■'.' 11" D'-.r9 trie Boero* Th. [nleele.iw*UF0 Oflarae 

l-lil.:, Ar.l.it Verllul...* V.. Label 



COMMODORE «4 '" 

64 collections #1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. H 
over 25 programs percoUeciion - Tape/Disk - £ 1 0.00 



PET* / CBM® 

22 collections > Tape/Disk - $10.00 each 

IHXSET - : Hesct Switch 

Works on Vic 20 or Commodore 64 - $5.00 



SERIAL CABLES 

I0H— J10.00 15Ft— J1B.00 

•jOC-LITE" 

Opeiation Status Indicate! Assembled & Tested 
120.00 

All prica* include shipping end handling. 

CHECK. MONEY ORDERS, 

VISA and MASTERCARD accepted. 

for A Free Catilog Write: 

Public Domain. Inc. 

5025 S- Hangalina Rd.. W. Millnn, OH 45383 

10:00 am. - 5:00 p.m. EST- Mon. thin Fn. 

(613) 698-5638 or 1513} 339-1725 



Circle Reader Service No. 20 
COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 111 



YOUR VOICE IN - 
YOUR VOICE OUT 
Digital Recording on 
C-64/VIC20 




Up lo 64 numbered words or phrases Then store 
as a named file on disk or lape. Words or phrases 
oul in any order from your own BASIC program. 
New BASIC Commands added. The Voice Master 
is not needed for response— only tor recording. 
Talking games, clacks, calculators, tile data, 
machine response, advisories— applications too 
numerous to list Wherever you want a talking 
computer with your own natural sounding voice 
and your own custom vocabulary Even sing and 
play music. Many applications in education too. 
Software lor word recognition soon available. 

ONLY S 89 95 
WE CAN DEMONSTRATE 
OVER THE TELEPHONE!! 

COVOX INC. 

675-D Conger St. Eugene, OR 97402 

Tel: (503) 342-1271, Telex 706017 

Check, money order, or VISA/MC 

(Add $4.00 Shipping and Handling) 

Circle Reader Service No. 22 



LEROY'S CHEATSHEE 
KEYBOARD OVERLAYS 




l-^'.XaH..-! 

™ ft.** SCH^T _ E*S* CALC 

2 hcs wniTE* z umaiunn »ot-t um,u h.*w 

2 •*«« am D nucnuLCWfiut 

3 MOWN IO< 5ifl*' M 

Z rtO*(r*X3 URUI |. A ll 



lilMiltT'UHIM 



: SPRUES OliT 



Oi r _ X S39S * 

Sfwpns £ Havana S _ 1 00 
6% sales la i S 



^EESSSSBSSiWWWW t 



TOTAL S 



CHEATSHEET PRODUC7S'" PUB F^?] ■ 

RO Bo* 8299 Pittsburgh PA. 15218 C4121731-9806 



Example 3 (continued) 



salutation$="Dear "+person$ 
flag=1 

endif 

if flag then quit 
next j% 
restore 
if flag ! Quit "if" structure 

quit ! on Hr., Ms., etc. 
elseif idx(mailist$, 'Dr.' ) or idx(mailist$, ' , M.D.') 

salutation$="Dear Doctor: " 
elseif idx(mailist$, 'Rev.' or idx(mailist$, 'Reverend' ) 

salutation$="Dear Reverend: " 
.,.! and so forth for Ph.D's, Brothers, Friars, etc. 
...! until we default, at "Bailey Bars and Bolts", to: 
else 

salutation$="Dear Client: " 
endif 
• * * • ^ e J ulp P here on the 'if flag' quit. 

end loop 



After you get used to "idx" or 
"index" you'll find more and more 
uses for the functions. Both are 
very powerful and very fast. 

And indeed I use the reserved 
word "directory" in Examples 1 
and 2. Not only may you do this, 
you may use "forbid" as a name 
for a numeric variable, despite the 
"for" in it, since SuperPET lan- 
guages don't store a variable name 
in the line — but instead store a 
pointer to the variable name. 
That's why variable names 31 
characters long run just as fast as 
names of one character— and 
why the interpreters for mBASIC, 
mFORTRAN and mPASCAL don't 
hiccup when a reserved word 
forms part of a variable name. You 



can nudge reserved words just a 
tetch, to become "sstop", "prinnt", 
"endd", etc., or by adding "$" in 
mBASIC. When you want to 
PRINNT something, or to mark the 
ENDD of something else, your var- 
iable name can clearly say so. 

End of the Detour 

Back to structure. You may not 
only jump out of all loops with a 
"quit", but you may leave complex 
IF. . . THEN statements as well, as 
in Example 3 above. There, by first 
screening out the Misters and Miz- 
zes, we avoid wading through the 
long list of less common titles. 
Since some of mv mail asks just 
how IF. . . ELSEIF. . . ENDIF state- 
ments work, let's take a look: 



if x=2 






! do 


thus and so and quit 




elseif 


x=3 




! or 


do something else anc 


I quit 


elseif 


x=4 




! or 


do another thing and 


quit 


else 






! or 


do the default thing 


and quit 


endif 







Circle Reader Service No. 21 



Only one of the "if. . . elseif . . . else" 
clauses ever executes. When it 
does, the interpreter jumps to the 
line following "endif" — an auto- 
matic "quit." But as we see in 
Example 3, the "quit" sometimes 
helps you skip big chunks of code. 
Note that you may have as many 
"elseifs" as you wish and that the 
default "else" is optional. 

In sum, you may leave all loops 
and all IF. . . ENDIF structures with 
some form of "quit", supple- 
mented by flags, in mBASIC, 
mFORTRAN and in SuperPET's 
assembly language. 

Those Dura Switches 

Low on the right side of SU- 
perPET you'll find either two or 
four small toggle switches. If the 
first is set to RW (Read Write), you 
may read from or write to the 64K 
bytes of bank-switched memory. 
Set to READ, and you read only. In 
PRG you control RW from pro- 
gram. Switch two selects the mi- 
croprocessor — either 6809 or 
6502 — or if set to PRG gives con- 
trol to the 6809 but will transfer it 
to the 6502 from program. Some 
early three-board SuperPETs may 
have switches three and four, 
which control ROM sockets used 
only in 6502 mode. If so. . . 

For Early Models 

Switch three controls socket 
UD12 on the lower board (address 
S9000-9FFF) for programs such as 
POWER. If you want the socket in 
6502, turn it on; in 6809 turn it off 
or you'll block the 64K of back- 
switched memory at $9000. 

Switch four controls socket 
UD11 (address $A000-$AFFF) usu- 
ally used by word processing pro- 
grams such as WordPro. Turn ii 
off in 6809. 

A few old three-board models 
have only two switches. You are in 
trouble if you install a chip in the 
S9000-S9FFF socket at UD12— for 
you then totally block any access 
to the upper 64K at $9000. Solu- 
tions: 1) install a switch or 2) use a 



simple BASIC program which un- 
loads to disk any ROM at $9000. 
Then take the ROM out. You 
thereafter load the ROM image in 
any of the switched banks and 
may call that bank (and program) 
on demand from 6502. It's a sim- 
ple and elegant solution. Send me 
a self-addressed, stamped en- 
velope at the address below, and 
I'll send the program written by 
Roy Busdiecker of Woodbridge, 
Virginia. 

For New Models 

How do you control those ROM 
sockets on new, two-board models 
with only two switches? With 
POKEs. Commodore provides two 
new sockets on the front of the 
upper board, where it's easy to in- 
stall ROMs. The $A000-AFFF socket 
(the word processing hole) is at 
LJ46, always on in 6502 and always 
off in 6809- The $9000-$9FFF soc- 
ket is at U45, always off until you 
POKE 61438,1 in Commodore 
BASIC. POKE zero there to turn 
it off— but only after you leave 
the program which uses that ROM 
(in POWER, you exit with OFF). If 
you don't EXIT you crash, for 
SuperPET is in the midst of a 
program which constantly refers 
to that ROM. Save a copy of the 
switch info above; the manuals 
say nothing about it. 



MAT Statements 

MicroBASIC possesses several 
new and powerful statements. 
The least familiar is the MAT 
statement. (MAT is short form for 
"matrix" or array.) If we have an 
array of a$(l)="One" and 
a$(2) = "Two", then MAT a$ (or 
mat a$) is a two-element matrix 
composed of a$(l) and a$(2). You 
can manipulate such arrays value 
by value as in Commodore BASIC 
or as single entities with MAT. 

As with arrays, you may employ 
up to, but not more than, ten mat- 
rix elements without a DIM. If you 
DIMension, DIM A$ or A, not mat 
A or mat A. Whether or not you 
dimension, no element has value 
until you assign one, either as a 
single value [mat a$ = (CR$)] or by 
transferring the value of another 
matrix [MAT A$=NAME$] of the 
same number of elements if 'both 
matrices are dimensioned. If 
they're not dimensioned, you 
have a powerful way to transfer 
one matrix to another even if they 
have a different number of ele- 
ments. As an example, you might 
have many menus (say menul$ 
through menu20$) in a complex 
program. If all menus are ten 
strings'or less, you can pass any 
menu as a parameter (in par- 
entheses) to a print procedure 
like this: 



call printt(raat raenu2$) 

• ■ * 

call printt(mat raenu20$) 

• • * 

proc printt(mat what$) 

print mat what$; ! Yes, semicolon. See below, 

endproc 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



113 



COMMODORE 64 tl 
SOFTWARE 

(SORRY, DISK ONLY) 

3s 1 S - <5>5 

plus $2.00 shipping and handling 
(foreign, except Canada - 13.00) 

These are selected public domain 

prograas developed especially -For the 

COMMODORE 64. 

GAMES, UTILITIES, 

BUSINESS, EDUCATION 

GRAPHICS, & MUSIC 

(DOCUMENTATION INCLUDED) 

send check or money order to 

SMADA SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 13B2 Dept P 
Bellevue, NE 68005 

COMMODORE 44 is a trademark of 
Commodore Electronics Ltd 



Circle Reader Service No. 23 



COMMODORE 64tm 



INSULATING? 

Energy prices are going (o continue to rise. 
That's why many people are taking a close 
look at their homes to see where they can 
save on heating bills. The problem is where 
to begin. Do you add more insulation? 
Where? Buy a new furnace? Or maybe add 
some thermal shutters to the windows? 

THE FACT IS THAT MOST PEOPLE DON'T 
KNOW WHERE THEY ARE LOSING THE 
MOST HEAT. 

St. Croix Valley Electronics has developed 
the Energy Analysis Program to assist you, 
You simply answer questions about your 
existing insulation, house dimensions, type 
of furnace, and type of house construction, 
and the program computes the rest. You'll 
find out how much heat you're losing and 
where, and also the amount of money saved 
by making a given improvement. You also 
find out how long it will take for the improve- 
ment to pay for itself. 

Specify tape or diskette when ordering. 
PRICE: $26.64 Cash, $29.00 VISA, 
MASTERCARD 

mSsb 
P.O. Box 75113 
St, Paul. MN 55175 

Wisconsin residents please add 5% state 
sales tax. 

Commodore 64 is a Trademark of — 
Commodore Electronics Ltd. 

Circle Reader Service No. 24 



And "mat what$" always prints 
as the menu matrix you specify. 
It saves a lot of code and is fast, 
fast, fast. 

Note well that you may assign 
new values to any single element 
of a matrix without disturbing the 
other elements by coding, for 
example a$(7)= "JONES", no mat- 
ter what the value of the other 
elements. 

You print matrices to screen 
with either "print mat a$" or "mat 
print aS", while to disk or printer 
opened as file #40 you use "print 
#40, mat a$". With no semicolon 
(mat print a$) values print in a 16- 
space print zone with automatic 
tabover. Add a semicolon (mat 
print a$;) and string matrices print 
with no spaces between elements, 
positive numbers with a prefixed 
space and negative numbers with 
a sign and no spaces. 

There's a trick to handling string 



matrices. Add a carriage return 
(CR$) to each element and that 
element will print to both screen 
and printer as a separate line. 
You may print a menu, a long list 
or even a complete letter with a 
single print statement instead of 
an explicit loop. And there's a sec- 
ond trick, widely useful. Example: 
names and addresses on mailing 
lists rarely fit into the same num- 
ber of lines. After they're printed, 
you must space to the top of the 
next label either by setting your 
printer or by counting the lines, 
With MAT statements, there's an 
easy way: (1) DIM a matrix for top- 
to-top label spacing, (2) assign the 
whole matrix the value of a car- 
riage return (CR$) and (3) over- 
write the matrix with the name and 
address. The CR strings which are 
not overwritten space you to the 
top of the next label, as below: 



Original Matrix 



Overwritten Matrix: 



Element: 


Value 





CR$ 


1 


CR$ 


2 


CR| 


3 


CR$ 


4 


CR$ 


5 


CR$ 



Value: 
00003DUNDE*789411800.AUG85 +CRS 

Homer Q. Dunderhead + CR$ 

Box 789 +CR$ 

Someplace NC 00000 +CR$ 

CRS (not overwritten) 
CR$ (not overwritten) 



(I assume above that six CR$ will 
print from top-of-label to top-of- 
label.) Hope it's clear. You may 
print entire form letters this way, 
complete with address and die 
proper "Dear John" salutation, 
spaced to print to top-of-form on 
each new copy. As an example 
here's the MATrix and string setup 
for such a form letter: 

mat ddate$ 
10 carriage returns to space 
from top-of-form to the address 
line, except that you overwrite 
ddate$(6) to print the cur- 
rent date. 

mat ack/ressS 
9 carriage returns, overwritten 

from line 1 to line 8, if needed, 



with name and address pulled 
from your disk mail list. 

salutationS (not a matrix) 
2 lines (one blank) 

mat letter$ 
38 carriage returns, overwritten 
with a letter of not more than 
38 lines. 

page$ (not a matrix) 
Which is chr$(12) and does a top- 
of-form to your printer, ready for 
the next letter. 

The setup above prints 66-line 
form letters from my mailing list 
so fast that the program far out- 
runs my Commodore 8300 P 
letter-quality printer at 40 cps. 
Spacing of date, address, salutation 



and the letter itself is always right, 
whether the address is two lines 
or a big bad eight (the bane of 
form letter senders). 

The complete print statement to 
my printer, on file #40, is one line. 



Is it not clear that MAT statements 
shorten, simplify and speed up 
code? If you want a copy of the 



form letter program, send me a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope. 
(For more information on printing 
APL or on SuperPET in general, 
write: Editor, SuperPET Gazette, P.O. 
Box 411, Hatteras, N.C. 27943.) 



Structured Assembly Language: Unstructured Assembly Language: 











Comments on Both: 








loop 
















jsr 


kyputb 






; get input from keyboard 




AGAIN 


JSR KYPUTB 


crapb 


#'y 












CMPB #«y 


quif 


eq 






; quit this loop only when 






BEQ, DONE 


cmpb 


#'n 












CMPB #'n 


quif 


eq 






; input is y(es) or n(o). 






BEQ DONE 


endloop 














BRA AGAIN 


stb whatdo 






; store choice when made 




DONE 


STB WHATDO 


; Both 


programs 


write 


identical machine-language 


code. 


Which 


is the easier for 


} you to write 


and 


read? 









Listing ltAcompariSOn of structured and unstructured 6809 code on SuperPET. The library routine called above 

(kyputb ) gets a character from the keyboard and returns it in the "B" register of the 6809, where we com- 
pare what comes back with the only allowed answers: either a "y" for "yes" or an "n" for "no." "cmp" means 
compare. 



BUILD. CHflBS 
DES 



tMSIO 

DOPRIHT 

>FNS 
GET.CHR *GETSCS CLR .CURSOR APRT 

COMPRESS EC PRT.CSET CONVFN PAPL 

>UAftS 
X ANS 10 A APLCHARS 

IS! 

DEAR DICK, 



ON THIS DISK YOU ARE ONLY INTERESTED IN THE "DOPRINT" WORKSPACE. 
I HAVE HADE A FEN CHANGES TO THE ROUTINES AND IHPROVED A FEN OF THE 
CHARACTER DEFINITIONS. I HAVE ADDED "DES" FUNCTION THAT TELLS YOU HOH 
TO USE THE FUNCTIONS IN THE WORKSPACE. 

YOURS TRULY 



Vjiltw 




T^r^ft □ ! E3l 
S <3 < t ; x : \ 

* v w => T- c *- t- -* >: — 

PORSTUUWXYZ < -i > *"e 



\va\ VL<f v.% %w?;++*ae§?jiT\T'An ! bi 

"><<=>] v,1 l<^, + ./eiE3456789< [;ii\ 
"alnl<_*iiD ' DITo*?Pl■ v luu^^c''>--•2- 
»ABC0EFGHt,SKLMN0PQRSTUUKXYZ<-UJ■i 



Listing 2: The APL character set, as printed on a Commodore 8023 printer from SuperPET using a technique by 

Delton B. Richardson. APL programs and program output may be sent to the 8023, Epson FX and 
MX printers. 

Note: The original of the APL character set is attached at the bottom of the letter transmitting it to me. The method has 

been tested and works. C 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



115 



reviews hardware 



HesModem 1 

Reviewed by Brock N. Meeks 



Computer: Commodore 64 and VIC 20 
Manufacturer: Human Engineered Software 

150 North Hill 
Brisbane, CA 94005 



Telecommunications Workhorse 

A team of draft horses is not likely to be confused 
with the HesModem 1. Yet, they have in common 
two distinct characteristics. One, they are slow and 
two, they never quit. Draft horses aside, the Hes- 
Modem 1 will deliver accurate and solid perfor- 
mance for many years. 

Every modem needs communications software. 
Without this software, the modem becomes just an 
expensive paperweight. The HesModem 1 comes 
complete with a terminal program. Unfortunately, 
it was not bred from the same stock as the modem. 

The Modem 

The HesModem i is manual dial and manual 
originate/answer selectable. The data transfer rate 
is software selectable from zero to 300 baud. It is 
compatible with the Bell 103 standard. You can 
toggle between full and half duplex manually. 

To get vour HesModem 1 online is painless — just 
plug it in. The modem plugs into the Commodore 
user port and requires no additional hardware to 
interface with the computer. 

In order to actually access another computer sys- 
tem or computer database, the procedure is even 
simpler. First, you manually dial the phone number. 
After receiving the highpitched carrier tone, detach 
the cord from the handset and plug the modular 
jack into the modem. The HesModem 1 is equipped 
with a red status light which confirms access to the 
system dialed. 

Once online, you are treated to the wonderful 
world of telecommunications. However, getting 
there, in this age of microseconds, ma)' seem a little 
like sitting behind a team of horses pulling a cov- 
ered wagon. The reason? The 300-baud rate of data 
transfer. At 300 baud, the data scrolls by at a read- 
able speed. However, when online, it may not al- 
ways be expedient to read the text as it appears 
on your screen. This especially applies if you are 
hooked into a commercial database such as Compu- 



Serve or The Source. A data transfer rate of 300 baud 
is like using cassette storage instead of a disk drive. 
Well, maybe not that bad, but you get the point. 

Of course you could get a 1200-baud modem. 
But instead of being out $60, you would see gaping 
holes in your bank account of $300 to $500! 

Once the modem is in place, the rest of the tele- 
communications duties fall on the terminal software. 

Terminal Software 

The software provided with the HesModem 1 
is supplied by Midwest Micro, out of Kansas City, 
Missouri. The software allows you to configure the 
modem in numerous ways. Software selectable are: 
baud rate, parity, word size, stop bits, linefeed and 
color or black and white video signal. 

The program allows for three different Commo- 
dore configurations; the unexpanded VIC 20, VIC 20 
with additional memory and the C64. In the unex- 
panded mode, data is received in the VIC standard 
of 22 characters per line. However, with additional 
memory, the software will convert the VIC to the 
C64 standard of 40 characters per line. 

Features 

There is a receive buffer allocated in the ex- 
panded VIC and the C64. This allows the "capturing" 
of data for output to a printer. With an unexpanded 
VIC, hard copy printout is limited to a screen dump. 
This is a printout of exactly what is on the screen at 
any given moment. Not an efficient way to capture 
data, but better than none. 

One convenient feature is called Format. Format 
enables you to read incoming text in an unbroken 
manner. This feature is useful to reformat data 
which was set up for terminal screens which display 
80-character lines. The software processes the in- 
coming data by stripping tabs and excess spaces 
from the lines so that each line begins at the left 
edge of the screen. 

The print buffer feature is used for obtaining a 
hard copy record of all captured data. You can edit 



116 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sepl./Ocl. 1964 



the buffer only by adding to it. There is no provision 
for deletion. Adding to the buffer is done from the 
half duplex mode. The ability to add to the buffer 
in this way is helpful for annotating the sessions you 
spend online. Annotations might include information 
such as the date or noting from which particular 
database the information was retrieved. 

Gripes 

I have three complaints about the software— one 
minor, and two major. First the minor complaint. 
Whenever you print the buffer, the results are only 
in lower case. The program does not recognize 
upper case characters, This is only slightly disturb- 
ing, but certainly not devastating. 

The first major complaint is that the program is 
available only on tape. Since the program is pro- 
tected, the making of a backup disk is impossible. 
Loading the program from tape is a slow torture for 
anyone regularly using a disk drive. 

Second, and most disturbing, is that there is no 
provision for downloading data to a storage device. 
This also means you cannot upload the buffer with 
previously prepared data. 

Without a download/upload capability, you are 
not able to take advantage of the numerous public 
domain software programs lurking about in any 
number of electronic bulletin boards. And caution 
must be exercised after an extended online session. 
If you have captured a large amount of data and do 
not choose to print it out, that data is lost once the 
computer is turned off. 

Documentation 

The documentation package is lean. In fact, 16 
pages lean. Included with the modem is a booklet 
that gives the absolute minimum knowledge as to 
the operation of the modem and software. To be fair 
however, there is little more that must be explained 
that cannot be found in the booklet, After all, one 
of the appealing features about the HesModem 1 
is its simplicity. 

Summary 

The HesModem 1 is an excellent and economical 
vehicle for venturing into the world of telecommu- 
nications. It is easy to overlook the obvious short- 
comings of the "free" software that comes with it, 
and certainly you are not obligated to use the in- 
cluded terminal program. There are other programs 
commercially available that will supply all the ver- 
satility you would need. 

The HesModem 1 is a thoroughbred trapped in 
the body of a workhorse. If you find yourself want- 
ing to travel the electronic airwaves and decide to 
hitch your computer to the HesModem 1, you'll find 
that like our team of draft horses, it may be slow but 
it will never quit. Circle Reader Service No. 502 C 



The Globetrotting Computer 

(Continued From Page 33) 

Check with proposed hotel(s) in advance, and be 
sure to mention your Commodore's mere 40- watt 
power needs. Most non- computer owners imagine 
computers require massive amounts of electricity. 

Insurance 

Some people think insuring a computer when 
traveling is hard. Wrote one writer, "I was forced to 
take $10,000 worth of software and equipment on 
the airplane without any insurance." Supposedly, 
companies balked at foreign coverage, or in-transit 
coverage or coverage period. Not true. 

S. Bernard Zivin, an independent agent in 
Chicago for 35 years, states that no informed agent 
should flinch at insuring a computer worldwide, 
even in-transit. To minimize potential problems, 
your computer equipment should be added to your 
homeowner's or renter's policy as a "personal arti- 
cle floater" — that is, an item specifically listed on 
your policy by brand name, model number and se- 
rial number. My insurance, with a $100 deductible, 
costs $22/year for $2,210 of coverage as part of a 
traveler's policy. 

The drawbacks of such a policy are the required 
deductible and lack of coverage for software. Also, 
since floaters cover individual items, if you fre- 
quently upgrade and alter your setup, you will have 
to reschedule your policy repeatedly. 

If partial coverage that needs frequent ad- 
justment bothers you, even these problems are 
surmountable, although you pay dearly. Such 
companies as Safeware of Columbus, Ohio, have 
appeared, catering to personal computer owners 
(phone: 800-848-3469). Only recently have they 
arranged international coverage. 

For people looking for a comprehensive indi- 
vidual policy on computer equipment, this sort of 
company is the solution. It covers everything — 
including all software, for all kinds of loss (except 
resulting from owner negligence)— for full re- 
placement value. 

Their international insurance is not under their 
regular computer owners' program. So, instead of 
a $60 premium — the domestic rate for $2,500 in 
equipment, with a $50 deductible— expect to pay 
$200 for any coverage below $5,000. 

Whatever your coverage, if your computer (any 
property, in fact) is lost, damaged or stolen, report it 
and initiate the paperwork immediately to the near- 
est appropriate authority— citing all information 
(including serial numbers). That will strengthen 
and speed your claim. Also, in some less developed 
nations, if you don't report an item lost on an air- 

(conlinued on page 121) 
COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 117 



reviews software 



Database Manager 



Reviewed by Ted Salamone 

Computer: Commodore 64 
Publisher: Mirage Concepts 

2519 W. Shaw No. 106 
Fresno, CA 93711 
Medium: Disk 



A database management pro- 
gram is very useful because of its 
ability to store, retrieve and ma- 
nipulate information quickly 
and accurately. 

As with all software, value is 
based on utility. This in turn de- 
pends upon factors like ease of 
use, flexibility and power. A pro- 
gram of limited capability is no 
bargain at any price; whereas a 
first class package at a realistic 
price is a real gem. 

That brings us to Mirage Con- 
cepts' Database Manager for the 
64. The manual, a vinyl three-ring 
looseleaf binder with pockets for 
program and data disks speaks 
quality. 

Unlike most, this one is easy 
to follow, concise and incredibly 
error-free. The introduction has 
general information about data- 
base structures, program origins, 
specs and features, and a quick 
overview of the 64 itself. Care 
and handling of disks, how to get 
a backup of the program disk 
(mail order for a nominal fee), a 
word about printers and operating 
dps follow. Most of the manual, 
however, is composed often be- 
ginning and advanced tutorials. 
Written with the novice comput- 
erist in mind, it is truly a step- 
by-step guide. Organized and 
presented in an extremely logical 
fashion, these well illustrated les- 
sons will have you using the man- 
ager in a few hours, even if you've 
never used one before. 



Execution of the program is just 
as straightforward as the paper lay- 
out. No nasty surprises awaiting the 
uninitiated! Database Manager is 
menu-driven, makes good use of 
the function keys and allows for 
better readability through screen 
color changes. It provides a backup 
utility for making copies of irre- 
placeable data and has plenty of 
room for just about any size form. 

Main menu commands are en- 
tered with just one numerical 
keystroke, while the submenus 
use the function keys. Field lengths 
are set by underlining the area(s) 
desired. All or selected records 
can be reviewed and editing is 
a snap. Deletion is just as easy. 
Searches can be conducted for 
exact and beginning field matches 
as well as wild cards using the as- 
terisk anywhere within the first 15 
characters. The latter two are help- 
ful when the exact name of a file 
escapes you momentarily. 

Sorting can be accomplished 
numerically or alphabetically 
using any field. Users are not lim- 
ited to a unique key field with this 
program. Furthermore a sort 
index can be saved to disk and 
multiple sorting (by one parame- 
ter after another) is possible to the 
nth degree. That's real flexibility! 

The print function is designed 
to interface with Commodore 
printers, though workalikes will 
do nicely. Output can be done as 
on screen (form format), as a list, 
a label or a report wherein subject 
and column titles, decimal place- 
ment, page formatting and page 



numbering are all possible. 

Calculated fields within a form 
are also an option. All the BASIC 
mathematical operators are avail- 
able. Working from information 
keyed into specified fields, the 
program automatically performs 
the desired arithmetic with 
each update. 

Another important feature is 
the use of conditional statements 
for review or selection of records. 
Working with alpha or numeric 
parameters, the process allows for 
screen or printer output of names 
or numbers above (beyond), be- 
low or between specified ranges, 
For example, zip codes between 
45876 and 01873. 

The file commands chapter 
provides a detailed explanation 
for even' function on that menu, 
from subfile creation and field re- 
placement to file packing (freeing 
the space used by now deleted 
data). File merge, creation of se- 
quential files for word processor 
interfacing, file deletion and 
the directoiy function are also 
discussed. 

Though this may seem like a 
lot (and it is), Database Manager 
is a real joy to use. It's fast, power- 
ful and almost foolproof. The 
uncomplicated command struc- 
ture and ability to interface with 
numerous word processors are 
a real blessing. 

At just $89.95 suggested retail, 
you can see why this product is 
worth considering for your data 
management needs. 

Circle Reader Service No. 503 C 



118 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sepl./Oct. 1984 



reviews software 




Tool 64 

Reviewed by Elizabeth Deal 

Computer: Commodore 6-i 
Publisher: Handle Software 

Fellowship Road 

Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054 
Medium: Cartridge 

~ Elizabeth Deal 
Tool64 is a "language enhancer" whose purpose 
is to fill the void of some missing BASIC commands. 
It contains program editing and debugging utilities, 
as well as a wealth of run-time commands including 
high-resolution graphics and a unique normal- 
resolution screen control and data-gathering 
system. The slant of the package is graphics and 
form designs for input and output on the screen. 
T00I64 is a mixed bag of goodies. Let's look at 
some utilities first, as they are the most important 
to have and are most portable. 

Utilities for Program Writing 

The usual toolkit-type commands such as auto 
line numbering, deleting specified line ranges 
and renumbering program lines are included. 
Renumbering is limited to renumbering a whole 
program or a tailend section of a program (line x to 
the end of a program). You cannot renumber just a 
segment (at least I haven't found a way to do it). 

DUMP displays the current values of all variables 
and strings and is useful in debugging a program 
that is misbehaving. But there is an ambiguity in the 
output from the DUMP command. It cannot tell a 
function definition from a variable. So, if your pro- 
gram contains a function named X and a variable 
named X, both appear as X=some value. You will 
have to decide which is which, not an easy task 
when you are chasing a bug, because that is pre- 
cisely the time when you have lost control of the 
values and cannot tell a correct one. 

The ERROR command is normally used when the 
BASIC interpreter reports an error. This command 
lists the bad line and shows the spot at which the 
program stopped in reverse characters. Handy. 

The FIND command is meant to find things in a 
program. Line range is supported. It can be used in 
a running program, though I can't get that feature to 



work. But that's no problem because there is little 
reason to FIND anything in a running program. But I 
have to admit that I am completely baffled how to 
use the FIND instruction in the Tool64 environ- 
ment. Some words come out. Some words come 
out only once, even though they appear more than 
once in a program. Some do not come out at all. 
Some come out if they are written in a certain way. 
For instance, "test" in PRINT "test" shows up, but 
in PRINT "this is a test" does not. I see no wild card 
searches and am unable to get this to work reli- 
ably. To add insult to injury, one recommended 
syntax is "ampersand-string to find-ampersand". 
Mind boggling, since that invokes the DOS-wedge. 
I suspect the documentation is bad and the com- 
mand works somehow. Check with your dealer. 
TRACE can be invoked during a program run. 
When it is called, an entire line of BASIC shows up 
on top of the screen so you can watch a program 
executing in slow motion. The SHIFT key resumes 
execution. This is a good command, but slightly 
inconvenient to use, as you cannot control the 
speed of TRACE. It's either single step or nothing. 
Nevertheless it is valuable. OFF turns off the TRACE. 

DOS Wedge/Disk Utilities 

T00I64 contains the vital DOS wedge commands. 
They omitted some unnecessary (in my opinion) 
commands, such as LOAD and RUN. That's not a loss. 
The key ones — reading the error channel, sending 
commands to disk and getting the directory — still 
with us. 

However, the directory display is a seriously 
stripped down version. You cannot use pattern 
matching — you must see the entire directory even if 
you just want to check on one sequential file. I can't 
explain why this is so, since the disk understands 
the full syntax of that command. An additional small 
and undocumented nuisance is that only the space 
bar functions as a pause key. 

Curiously, there is no way to reassign the disk-talk 
to a device other than eight. I changed one disk unit 
to nine and never found a way to tell the wedge to 
talk to that device. One careless wedge instruction 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 19B4 



119 




on my pari crashed the computer and that was that. 

Tool64 powers up in black, What a relief from 
the blinding blue! It also comes up with all keys 
repeating, so if you don't want that feature (I nor- 
mally don't), POKE 650,0 to kill it and just have the 
normal cursor repeat. 

I haven't found a command to disconnect the 
package. (Frankly, I do not even know if a cartridge 
program can ever be disconnected.) Sometimes you 
may not want to have a utility active. But turning off 
the computer and removing the cartridge seems to 
be the only way to disconnect. It is an inconven- 
ience, considering that it is no easy task to remove it 
from a computer. Filing down the edges of the cart- 
ridge board helps a bit, but it is still a great struggle. 

Debugging and utility commands, by definition, 
must coexist with as many programs in memory as 
possible. Tool64 does this job rather well with some 
of my programs, including Superman. Unfortu- 
nately the book is totally silent on the issue. A major 
fault in an otherwise excellent documentation. 

Overall, as debugging packages go, this one is 
certainly useful, but not as powerful or bug-free as 
others I have seen. It seems that the utilities package 
is rather small considering the possibilities. But the 
tradeoff for smallness is a bunch of fabulous screen 
manipulation commands for both graphic displays 
and user inputs. 

Screen and Data Commands 

This section includes all other T00I64 com- 
mands. The commands can be used in both direct 
and program mode. Their syntax is meticulously 
described in the book. Many commands 
require many parameters, mostly of the type: start- 
ing line, starting column, data description, what to 
do and where. The order of parameters is fixed. 
Apart from having some trouble in distinguish- 
ing the letter "1" from a number one, I had no 
problem putting the commands to work. It was lots 
of fun reviewing this section of the cartridge. 

Normally when extra commands are added to 
the interpreter, all BASIC processing is slowed 
down. Tool64, in my opinion, is very fast. I noticed, 



perhaps, a six percent time penalty. That is unnotic- 
able except in some strictly timed situations. 

In high-resolution mode the following are 
supported: GRAPHIC mode flips on the high- 
resolution screen. You can MOVE a (invisible) 
cursor, PLOT and erase points, check if a point is on, 
DRAW and erase lines, print (DISPLAY) normal text 
at any location that is a multiple of eight and set 
plotting and text colors (both the same). These 
commands alone are worth their weight in gold. 
The syntax is simple; for example, to plot a point at 
x,y you code PLOT x,y,l. To erase a point you use the 
same command with a zero at the end. Nicely done. 

Bit-mapped screen images can be saved on disk. 
They can be loaded back. They load into the high- 
resolution area of memory correctly whether you 
are in the bit-mapped mode or not. 

Color settings are supported for both the high- 
resolution and normal modes. There seem to be no 
commands for multicolor bit-mapped display. There 
is only so much room on a cartridge. 

TEXT mode is the normal screen setting. Here 
you can frame any area, reverse it, scroll it in any of 
four directions, clear it and save it. This is invaluable 
in designing a screen to look good, be it part of a 
game or some serious application. You can scroll 
information within a window, have several windows 
on the screen at one time. . . imagination is the limit. 
PET users are familiar with this sort of routine from 
Supergraphics. Valuable routines. 

There is more. You can define certain areas of the 
screen as input zones. You can describe what sort of 
data can be placed in an area (alphabetic, numeric, 
what sort of numeric, how many digits, etc.). Subse- 
quent use of what the book calls "data acquisition 
commands" permits instant data verification. This 
is a whole new language and while the book is 
very precise, there aren't too many examples, so 
you have to approach it as a new tiling to be learned. 
It isn't hard, it's just new. It's very useful stuff. 

Strangely enough, screen output also falls under 
"data acquisition." No matter, this is where strings 
and variables can be printed, all nicelv formatted as 
in PRINT USING. 



120 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept. /Oct, 1984 



You can save screens normally; the definitions can 
be saved with the screen file. You can easily swap a 
screen with a disk-screen file (as you might wish to 
do with a HELP screen). 

The screen SAVE and LOAD commands are fast 
and most useful. One slight problem: the system 
does not remember what colors it saved — the 
border, background and character settings — hence 
you have to provide your own means to do that. 
That's not a problem. There is one slight problem 
when the LOAD or SAVE is finished. The computer 
says READY right on your screen image. It would be 
nice if "READY' were suppressed in direct mode. 
However, the cursor stays in place and that is a very 
good thing. 

Whenever you ask for GRAPHIC mode (i.e., 
high-resolution) Tool64 flips the current normal 
mode screen out. I don't know if they switch it or 
store it in a temporary area; the book doesn't say. It 
is an important omission — we have to know what 
area of memory (under BASIC?) is being used— if 
any. I think color memory image must be stored 
someplace, but I couldn't switch that area to be RAM 
with the cartridge in place. Once again, perhaps it's 
■ me. I do not understand anything about the magic 
of cartridges. 

That's about it. There are several other small com- 
mands that are useful, but none as important as the 
ones listed in this section. 

While the screen managing commands are fas- 
cinating and useful, bear in mind that if you code 
them into your own programs, they will not run on 
another Commodore 64. To RUN properly, the 
other 64 must have Tool64. This is not a problem 
for many users. Many of us have our own, private 
applications where commands such as the ones 
described in this section can be used for splendid 
data control. But don't forget, such problems must 
never travel to users who do not have Tool64. This 
is not the case with the debugging and utility 
commands — programs written using RENUMBER or 
the DOS wedge can, of course, run on any computer. 

Final note: there is something strange when the 
whole system initializes. As everybody knows, a 
cartridge must be plugged in with a computer 
turned off. A disk drive must be turned on before 
the computer (my recent 64 will not show bytes free 
unless a connected drive is turned on). So we plug 
in the cartridge, turn the computer on and for some 
reason it wants to talk to the disk. There being no 
floppy in the drive, the light begins to flash — you 
must use the wedge error reading command to 
settle the light down. I do not understand why all 
this is happening; other cartridges do not behave 
this way at all. It is not a major problem, of course, 
but is a nuisance. Circle Reader Service No. 504 C 



The Globetrotting Computer (Continued From Page 117) 

line to authorities at the airport where loss or dam- 
age is first discovered when first discovered, 
they won't accept any claims against them. This 
happened to me in Nepal. 

Support Abroad 

Commodores are sold in at least 40 countries. 
The 64 's are the top selling personal computer in 
Europe. Commodore dealers abroad also handle 
supplies and maintenance support. For specific ad- 
dresses of dealers and other information, contact 
the International Sales staff in the Bahamas, as 
mentioned previously. 

Additional support can come from foreign user 
groups. This magazine lists 24 Canadian groups, as 
well as 19 more in 13 other foreign countries. 

Technical support and maintenance for those in 
out-of-the-way restricted nations will be minimal or__ 
nonexistent. Behind the Iron Curtain, for instance, 
no Commodore offices exist. Paul Schlichter, a 
European representative of another company, 
Kaypro, paints an unsetding picture for such travel- 
ers: "Users in those countries contact me by phone 
and try to solve their problem themselves. For U.S. 
users traveling to these countries, I suggest they buy 
the technical manual." 

The software packages available overseas are not 
necessarily what Americans get and they may not be 
in English. Therefore, know your software thor- 
oughly before traveling; don't delay learning or 
expanding your library until abroad. 

Last Thoughts 

Important questions remain that only you can 
ask and answer. How important is your computer in 
your travels — enough to justify the expense, hassles, 
extra weight, bureaucracy and potential sense of in- 
security in bringing a valuable item abroad? Are you 
traveling so much that your computer will weigh 
you down like an anchor? And is your Commodore 
appropriate where you are going? For instance, a 
friend who is considering taking a computer to 
New Delhi knows its potendal value to his academic 
work in India... and how quickly word of his com- 
puter will spread. The probability of theft worries 
him greatly. 

But if you feel your Commodore is appropriate 
for your travel, this article can start you on your way. 
In the words of a popular TV chef, after creating an 
intricate nine-course meal in three minutes, "Very 
simple, very easy." 

Bon voyage. C 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 121 



reviews software 



* 

* 
t ■ 

t 


* 
1 

1 


■ • m a JH |E* 

• • * •■■H ■■■■■■+ • ■ • • • 

»« re*:*: 










• 
• 


• • I^H Km • • ■ * ^K 

« * ■ # * H| * • •■•■■•• 



Write Now! 

Reviewed by Kelley M. Essoe 

Computer: Commodore 64 

Publisher: Cardco, Inc. 
313Matheson 
Wichita, KS 67214 

Medium: Cartridge 



Write Now! for the Commodore 64 
from Cardco is to word processing 
what cartoons are to television: 
easy to turn on, moderately amus- 
ing, ludicrously intriguing, subtly 
powerful, surprisingly charismatic 
and somewhat undignified. 

Yet behind a cacophony of 
"reassuring ticks," constrained and 
regulated input parameters, spas- 
modic scrolling and the generally 
un-serious look of this word pro- 
cessor, (all of which I'll explain 
later) there lies some verv power- 
ful capabilities that cannot be 
found on word processors for 
twice the price. And the people 
at Cardco have tried very- hard to 
make them easy and accessible. 

Included in the Write Now! 
package are two paper overlays for 
you to cut out and place over the 
keyboard. One fits over the func- 
tion keys, the other goes above the 
main keyboard and fits . . . some- 
how. This particular one has a 
"fold along dotted line" instruc- 
tion and maybe I'm daft, but I 
wasn't quite sure what I was sup- 
posed to do with the folded part. 
Reason, in the form of my eight 
year-old expert at sticking things 
into small places, suggested that I 
snug the fold into the gap between 
the top row of keys and the casing. 
Simple, right? My only defense 
is that at times of frustrations, 
simplicity is the last frontier to 
be investigated . 



(Or go to Your Room) 



The overlays mark what func- 
tions the corresponding keys per- 
form. The function keys are used 
both shifted and unshifted, and 
the top left eleven keys on the 
keyboard are used with either the 
CONTROL or the Commodore 
logo keys. Altogether, Write Now! 
gives you a total of 30 "labeled" 
command keys. 

The myriad of commands of- 
fered by Write Now! are unques- 
tionably notable. Just about all 
of the standard, even some not 
so standard, editing functions 
are here. 

The dedicated command keys 
give you access to a terrific as- 
sortment of functions such as 
block controls, search and search 
and replace, insert mode, place 
markers, deletions, tabs and vari- 
ous printer and disk drive com- 
mands. There are also specific 
keys for text buffer dumps and 
clears, quick scrolling by screen 
page, cursor placement to top 
or bottom of text, and CRT 
color selection, 

Text formatting, a shorthand 
term for defining the finished 
"look" of your document, such as 
margins, line spacing, justification 
and such, is accomplished primar- 
ily through the use of "dot" com- 
mands. A dot command consists 
of a specific code sequence that is 
preceded by a dot (or a period, if 
you will) and followed by hitting 
the RETURN key. These commands 
must appear in the leftmost col- 
umn of a screen line, but can be 
placed at any point within the 
bodvof vour text. This means that 





you can, for example, define a 
particular set of margins for one 
paragraph, use a different set for 
others, left-justify these, center 
those, and triple space another 
down there. 

I counted a total of 24 different 
dot commands supported by Write 
Now!, 15 of which run the gamut 
of the basic formatting standards 
from setting margins, page length 
and line spacing to fixing head- 
ers, justifications and automatic 
page numbering. 

So what about the other nine? 
Alia! Tune in on these and Write 
Now! changes channels and takes 
you from Casper the Friendly 
Ghost to He-man and the Masters 
of the Universe, with commands 
that you don't often find in 
word processors. 

For instance, it can be a frustrat- 
ing moment when you discover 
that although your expensive dot 
matrix printer can offer you a vast 
world of impressive print style 
combinations, like double-strike- 
emphasized-elongated-pica-italics, 
alas, your word processor cannot. 
Write Now! is the only word pro- 
cessor for the 64 that I know of 
which has extended capabilities 
to send "escape sequences" down 
to your printer. 

With Write Now!'s marvelous 
"E" command, you can take full 
advantage of all of your printer's 
type styles, modes and special 
characters . . . not just the depress- 
ingly few choices that most other 
word processing authors thought 
to make provisions for. 

Other remarkable and thought- 



122 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



ful functions that Write Now! of- 
fers include the versatile "K" and 
"V" commands. 

When the "K" command is en- 
countered during hard-copy out- 
put, the printer will pause and the 
word processor will prompt you 
for keyboard input of up to 36 
characters. This can be very handy 
for personalizing form letters 
while the copies are being printed 
out. The "V" command places a 
particular field of data into text at 
the point where the "V" variable is 
found. In other words, "Va" could 
represent "name," "Vb" the field 
"address," and so on. This com- 
mand gives you mini mail-merge 
abilities from within Write Now! ', 
although Cardco's compatible 
Mail Now! program would be 
an easier way to tackle the 
larger mailings. 

This program also supports 
multiple line headers and footers, 
automatic page numbering in 
either Arabic or Roman numerals, 
and an optional joystick control 
command for scrolling. 

Write Now! does offer an 80- 
column video display, but the clar- 
ity leaves a lot to be desired so 
don't count on this for anything 
more than checking the overall 
appearance of your document. 

Other options such as setting 
device numbers, secondary ad- 
dressing and other printer and 
disk drive commands are selected 
through the options, printer and 
disk menus. Also, four help 
screens can be called up at any 
time to remind you of the vari- 
ous functions and formatting 
commands. 

Still, in spite of the program's 
power, my initial reaction was that 
it was not created with a grownup 
in mind. As a matter of fact, my 
eight year-old loves it. First of all, it 
has sound effects reminiscent of a 
video game. Kids like noise. They 
like to make noise and have noise 
made at them. Write Now! cer- 
tainly fits that bill. 

Pop! Pop! Pop! That's the first 



thing I noticed when I sat down to 
the business of WRITES ng NOW! 
When you type, the machine re- 
sponds with a sound not unlike a 
bunch of bubbles bursting. And 
moving the cursor elicits some- 
thing like a machine gun firing 
blank rounds. The manual de- 
scribes these sound effects as 
"reassuring ticks." Personally I 
don't find ticks at all reassuring. 
My college psychology teacher 
had one ... it tended to make his 
sanity appear questionable. Mov- 
ing the cursor to top of screen or 
below text is not recommended. 
The machine startles you with a 
rather loud no-no. Bong! Bong! it 
says, slapping your senses silly. 
Any naught}' act on your part will 
elicit this same reprimand. Even 
the manual describes this re- 
sounding emission as "nasty." 
Sometimes the word processor 
will flash you an exclamated mes- 
sage at the same time. ALREADY 
MARKED! NOT MARKED! BLOCK 
SET INCORRECTLY! You half ex- 
pect it to rap you across the 
knuckles with a ruler. 

YALDRINHUHBO 
ROPENAMUDSEN 
EBURBVRRRHNT 
SLBNAOAOGENO 




Another immediately noticeable 
eccentricity is the fact that there is 
only one input line. Welcome to 
the cursor line. For the duration of 
your writing experience this will 
be vour home base. Instead of 



being able to move the cursor 
around the screen to text, text 
scrolls up or down to the cursor 
line. In other words, if I spot an 
error above where I am currently 
writing and I move the cursor up 
to go and fix it, the cursor and I ac- 
tually stay right where I am. The 
text obligingly comes to us. I know 
there is really nothing inherently 
wrong with this. After all, the 
means do accomplish the ends, 
and 1 did fix the typo in line three. 
I suppose it's just a matter of 
personality. I got the feeling that 
I wasn't getting anywhere, 
and worse, I was being clearly 
informed that I couldn't go 
anywhere . . . kind of like 
being grounded. 

True, these particular idiosyn- 
crasies are not overwhelming and 
can be adjusted to. I can always 
turn off the sound on my monitor. 
Then at least I don't have to listen 
to the ceaseless pops, thuds, beeps, 
honks and rat-a-tat-tats. And I sup- 
pose I could eventually resign 
myself to being tethered within 
the confines of a single cursor 
line. So much for adventure. 

A not so easily dealt with, and 
somewhat distressing feature is 
the quality of scrolling. This is de- 
finitely not a smooth scroll . . . the 
text sort of jumps and jerks its way 
across the cursor line. And it's near 
impossible to keep your eye on 
a specific area of text while it's 
hippity-hopping about like a 
frightened bunny. 

Nevertheless, all in all, I must 
say that Write Now! is not at all 
lacking in versatility nor in power. 
Still, this is not really a profes- 
sional writer's tool. 

But it you just want to write a 
few letters, jot down a diary, create 
a term paper or give your kids 
their own word processor, and 
your main requirements include 
low-cost, clear cut instructions, 
and ease of use, then by all means, 
turn down the sound on your 
monitor and.., Write Now! C 

Circle Reader Service No. 507 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



123 



departments user groups 



User Group Listing 



Because our user group listing has become excessively long, we are now publislnng only a partial list in 
each issue. This time we've included all our user groups in states beginning with letters A through M. Next 
issue u 'ell publish all the groups in states beginning with letters N through Wand all foreign groups. Then 
the following issue, it 's back to A through M, and so on, until we get so many that we liave to publish it in 
three — or four — or more — parts. 



ALABAMA 

Huntsville PET Users Club 
9002 Berelair Road 

Huntsville, Al. 35802 
Contact: Hal Carey 
Meetings: every 2nd 
Thursday 

Riverchase Commodore 
Users Group 
617 Grove St. 
Birmingham, AL 35209 
(205)988-1078 
Ken Browning 
Wiregrass Micro-Compuier 
Society 

Commodore S1G 
109 Kev Bend Kd. 
Enterprise, AL 36330 
(205)347-7564 
Bill Brown 

Tiger Byte; E, Alabama 
CUM 64 
Users Group 

c/o The Computer Store, Inc. 
Midway Plaza 
Opetika.AL 36801 
Jack Parsons 
1st & 3rd Wed of Month 
The Birmingham Commodore 
Computer Club 
Birmingham, AL 
(205) 923-9260 
Harry Jones 

Commodore Club of Mobile 
3868-1 1 Rite Maison 
Mobile, AL 36608 
(205)343-1178 
Tom Wyatt 
3rd Thurs. of month 

Shoals Commodore Users 

Group (SCUG) 

209LakeshoreDr. 

Muscle Shoals, At 35661 

Geo, Taylor 

2nd & -til) lues, of month 

1920-A Avenue C 

Brookly 

Mobile', At 36615 

(205)661-1973 

Howard Crider 

CC & Me 

P.O.Box 324 

Pinson.AL 35126 

(205)854-0650 

Bill Freeman 

1734 S. Atmore Ave. 
Whistler, AL 36612 
(205)452-9740 
William Autry 

ALASKA 

COMPOOH-T 

c/o Box 118 

Old Harbor, AK 99643 
(907)286-2213 



Alaska 84 Computer Club 

c/o tine 49 Management 

P.O. Box 6043 

Anchorage, AK 99502 

First Citv Users Group 

P.O. Box 6692 

Ketchikan, AK 99901 

(907)225-5695 

James tlanos 

ARIZONA 

VIC Users Group 

2612 E. Covina 

Mesa, AZ 85203 

Contact: Paul Muffuletto 

Catalina Commodore 

Computer Club 

2012 Avenida Guillermo 

Tucson, .AZ 857 10 

(602)296-6766 

George Pope 

1st Tues. 7:30 p.m. 

Central Arizona PET People 

842 W Calle del None 

Chandler, AZ 85224 

(602)899-3622 

Roy Schahrer 

ACUG 

c/o Home Computer Service 

202BWGimeIbackRd. 

Phoenix, AZ 85015 

(602)249-1186 

Dan Deacon 

First Wed. of month 

West Mesa VIC 

2351 S. Standage 

Mesa, AZ 85202 

Kenneth S. Epstein 

Arizona VIC 20-64 Users Club 

232 W 9th Place North 

Mesa, AZ 85201 

Donald Kipp 

Arizona VI C & 64 Users 

904 W. Marlboro Circle 

Chandler, AZ 85224 

(602)963-6149 

Tom Monson 

Canyon De Chelly — Four 

Corners Users Group 

c/o Calumet Consulting 

Box 1945 

Chinle, AZ 86503 

(602)674-3421 

Larry DiLucchio 

they meet bi-monthly 

ARKANSAS 

Commodore/PET Users Club 

Conway Middle School 

Davis Street 

Conway, AR 72032 

Contact: Geneva Bowlin 

Booneville 64 Club 

c/o A. R. Hederich 

Elementary School 

401 W. 5th St 



Booneville, AR 72927 
MaryTaff 

The Siloam Commodore 

Computer Club 

P.O. Box 88 

Siloam Springs, AR 72761 

(501)524-5624 

Ken Emanualson 

Russellville Commodore 

User Group 

401 S. Arlington Dr. 

Russellville, AR 72801 

(501)967-1868 

Bob Brazeal 

Arkansas River Valley 

Commodore Users 

401 S. Arlington Dr. 

Russellville, AR 72801 

(501)967-1868 

Bob Brazt-al 

P.l.C.Club 

c/o Hatfield Public Schools 

Box 130 

Hatfield, AR 71945 

(501)389-6164 

Bob Reed 

Commodore Computer Club 

of Ft. Smith, AR 

P.O. Box 6000 

So, Station 

Ft Smith, AR 72906 

Joe Ragsdale 

2nd Tues. of month 

CALIFORNIA 

SCPUG Southern California 

PET Users Group 

c/o Data Equipment 

Supply Corp. 

8315 Firestone Blvd. 

Downey, CA 90241 

(213) 923-9361 

Meeti ngs: First Tuesday of 

each month 

California VIC Users Group 

c/o Data Equipment 

Supply Corp. 

8315 Firestone Blvd. 

Downev, CA 90241 

(213)923-9361 

Meetings: Second Tues. of 

each month 

Valley Computer Club 

P.O. Box 310 

Denair.CA 95316 

PUG of Silicon Valley 

22355 Rancho Ventura Road 

Cupertino, CA 95014 

Lincoln Computer Club 

750 E. Yosemite 

Manteca, CA 95336 

John Fung, Advisor 

PET on the Air 
525 Crestlake Drive 
San Francisco, CI 94132 
Max J. Babin, Secretary 



PALS (Pets Around) 

Livermore Society 

886 South K 

Livermore, CA 94550 

(415)449-1084 

Even' third Wednesday 

7:30 p.m. 

Contact: J. Johnson 

SPHINX 

267 Arlington Ave. 

Kensington, CA 94707 

(415)527-9286 

Bill MacCracken 

San Diego PUG 

Box 86531 

San Diego, CA 92 138 

(619) 277-7214 

Jane Campbell 

3rd Thurs. 7- 10 p.m. 

Walnut Creek PET 

Users Club 

1815 Ygnaciu Vallev Road 

Walnut Creek, CA 94596 

Jurupa Wizards 
8700 Galena St. 
Riverside, CA 92509 
781-1731 
Walter J. Scon 

The Commodore Connection 

2301 Mission St. 

Santa Cruz, CA 95060 

(408)425-8054 

Bud Masse}' 

San Fernando Valley 

Commodore Users Group 

21208 Nashville 

Chatswonh.CA 91311 

(213)709-4736 

Tom Lynch 

2nd Wed. 730 

South Bay Commodore 

Users Group 

1402 W 218th St. 

Torrance, CA 90501 

Contact: Earl Bvans 

The Diamond Bar R.O.P. 

Users Club 

2644 Anielgado 

Haciendo ligts., CA 91745 

(213)333-2645 

Don Mcintosh 

Commodore Interest 

Association 

c/o Computer Data 

14660 La Paz Dr. 

Victotville, CA 92392 

MarkFinley 

Computer B3rn 

Computer Club 

319 Main St. 

Suite #2 

Salinas, CA 9390 1 

757-0788 

S. Mark Vanderh ill 



Humboldt Commodore 

Group 

P.O. Box 570 

Areata, CA 95521 

R. Turner 

Napa Valley Commodore 

Computer Club 

c/o Liberty Computerware 

2680 Jefferson St. 

Napa, QV 94558 

(707)252-6281 

Mick Winter 

1st & 3rd Man. of month 

S.D. East County C-64 

User Group 

6353 Lake Apopka Place 

San Diego, CA 921 19 

(619)698-7814 

Linda Schwartz 

Commodore Users Group 

4237 Pulmeria Ci. 

Santa Maria, CA 93455 

(805)937-4174 

Gilbert Vela 

Bay Area Home 

Computer Asso. 

1332 Pine St. 

Walnut Creek, CA 94598 

(415)932-5447 

Cliff Downing 

Amateurs and Artesians 

Computing 

P.O. Box 682 

Cobb, CA 95426 

Manteca VIC 20 Users 

Organization 

429 N. Main St. 

Manteca, CA 95336 

Gene Rong 

Pomona Valley Commodore 

Users Group 

1401 W. 9th, #77 

Pomona, CA 91766 

1^14)620-8889 

Mark Joe rger 

1st & 3rd Wed. 

of month 7 p.m. 

VlCTORIl-TheVlC20 

Users Group 

PSC#1, Box 23467 

APO San Francisco, CA 96230 

Wesley Clark 

The Valley Computer Club 

2006 Magnolia Blvd. 

Burbank,C-\ 91506 

1st Wed. 7 p.m. 

The Commodore Tech. Users 

P.O. Box 1497 

Costa Mesa, CA 92626 

VIC 20 Software 

Exchange Club 

10530 Skv Circle 

Grass Valley, CA 95945 

Daniel Upton 



124 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Ocl, 1984 



C-64 West Orange County 

Users Group 

P.O. Box 1457 

Huntington Beach, CA 92647 

(714)8424484 

Philip Putman 

2nd & 'till 'lues ill' mon ih 

Ainelo]>e Valley Commodore 

I 'sets Group 
I'OB (436 

Lancaster, ca 93539 
(805)942-2626 
James l Liner 
1st Saturday 

Diablo Valley Commodore 

l 'sers Group 
P.O. Box 27155 
Concord. G\ 94520 
(415)838.2838 

CA. Area Commodore 

Terminal Users Soeiciv 

CACTUS. 

I'.O. Box 1277 

Altfl Loma, C\ 91701 

Darnel] I [all 

20/64 

RO Box 18473 

San lose, G\ 95158 

(408)97*0546 

1st Sun. of month (6-9 p.m.) 

Si ili'v.uv 11 I 

353 California [>l 

Burlingame, CA 94010 

(415)340-7115 

Mario Abad 

Sacrament i Commodore 

i tsers Group 

8120 Sundance Dr. 

Orange-vale, CA 95662 

(916)969-2028 

Robyn Graves 

Peninsula Commodore 

Users Group 

549 Old County Rd. 

San Carlos, CA '94070 

(415)593-7697 

Timothy Very 

2nd Tiuirs. of Month 

San Francisco Commodore 

Users Group 

Z78-27thAve. #103 

San Francisco, CA 94121 

(415)387-0225 

Roger Tierce 

Commodore 64 West 
Computer Club 
2917 Colorado Ave. 
Santa Monica, G\ 90404 
(213)828-9308 
Don Campbell 
Sixtv Fourum 
P.O.Box 16098 
Fresno, CA 93755 
John Damiano 
C-64A'IC20 Users Group 
Pasadena City College 
Cicadian Room 
Pasadena, CA 
(714)593-4880 
Chuck Cypher 
7 p.m. 1st & 3rd Thursdays 
Marin Commodore 
Computer Club 
620 Del Ganado Rd. 
San Rafael, CA 
(415)4790426 
2nd Wed. of month 7:30 pan. 

Santa Rosa Commodore 64 
i Isers Group 
333 East Rubles Ave. 
Santa Rosa, CA 95407 
(707) 584-7009 
Garry Palmer 
meets once a month 
The Exchange 

P.O. Box 9189 
LongBeach.CA 90810 
(215) 595-1771 
Michael C.Joseph, MD 



Southern California Edison 
Commodore Club 
P.O. Box 800 
Rosemead, CA 91770 
Jerry Van Norton 

i.ogiks Commodore 

Computer Club 

c/o Christ Presbyterian 

Church 

620 Del Ganado Rd. 

San Rafael. C\ 94903 

(4)5)479-0426 

Elmer Johnson 

2nd Wed. of month "30 pm 

Commodore 64 West 

P.O. Box 346 

Culver Citv.CA 90232 

(213)398-0913 

Charles P. Santos 

Commodore Users Group of 
Riverside (CUGR) 
P.O. Box 8748 

Riverside. G\ 92515 
(714)689-1452 

Ken Brown 

2nd &4thThurs. night 

VIC-Cliib:S:in Francisco 

(VCSF) 

1503A Dolores 

San Francisco, CA 94110 

Colinjohnsion 

ages 10 to 16 preferred- 

SIG (Special Interest Group) 

1135 Coronet Ave. 

Pasadena, CA 91107 

Brian R. Klotz 

VIC 20 Software Exchange 

7660 Western Ave. 

Buena Park, CA 9O620 

Vincent Beliz 

S.m Luis Obispo Commodore 

Computer Club 

17669th St. 

Los Osos, CA 93402 

(805)528-3371 

Joan Rinehart 

BBS (804) 528-7475 

s\a G 

P.O. Box 1925 
Chico.CA 94927 
(916)343-4611 
Jim Banks, Jr. 

Suisun/FF/Vacaville 
Commodore I 'sers Group 
1410 Pelican V&y 

Suisun Citv, CA 95485 
(707)426-2077 
Charles D. Akula 

South Bay Commodore Users 

Group 

4<M-9thSi. 

Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 

(213)374-1247 

Lloyd Lehrer 

COLORADO 

VICKiMPET Users Group 

4 Waring Utile. 

Greenwood Village 

Littleton, CO 80121 

Contact: Louis Roelll's 

Colorado Gmimodore 

Computer Club 

2187 S. Golden Q. 

Denver, CO 80227 

986-0577 

Jack Moss 

Meet 2nd Wed 

Commodore Users Group 

Box 377 

Aspen, CO 81612 

(303)925-5604 

Ray Brooks 

1st Monday in the evenings 

Vicdore Users Group 

326 Emery Dr. 

l.ongmont. CO 80501 

(303) 772-2821 

Wayne Sundstrom 



Aurora Market Users Group 

c/o Computer Market Place 

15200 E. 6th Ave. 

Aurora, CO 800 12 

(303)367-0901 

Kc iger 01>erdier 

CONNECTICUT 

John F. Garbarino 

Skiff Lane Masons Island 

MvStiC,CT 06355 

(203) 536-9-89 

Commodore User Club 

Werhersfield High School 

-til Wolcott Hill Road 

Wethers field, CT 06109 

Contact: Daniel G. Spaneas 

VIC Users Club 

c/o Edward Barsscewski 

JJTunxisRoad 

West Hartford. CT 06107 

New London County 

Commodore Club 

Doolitlle Road 

Preston, CT 06360 

Contact: Dr. Walter Doolittle 

The Commodore East 

Users Group 

165 U S. Bigelow Rd. 

Hampton, CT 06247 

(203 1 4 55-0 108 

Commodore Users Group 

of Stratford 

P.O.Box 1213 

Stratford, CT 06497 

(203)377-8373 

Dan Kern-Ekins 

Capitol Region Commodore 

Computer Club 

57 Girter Dr. 

Tolland, CT 06084 

Prudence Schifley 

2nd Mon. of month 7 p.m. 

CT Computer Sotieiv 

180 Bloomfield Ave. ' 

Hartford. CT 06105 

(203)233-3373 

Harry Hill 

last Sat. of month 

Fairfield County Commodore 

Users Group 

P.O. Box 2 12 

Danhury.CT 06810 

Linda Retter 

DELAWARE 

The Diamond State 

Users Group 

Box 892, RD 2 

Feiton, DE 19943 

(302)284-4495 

Michael Butler 

Newark Commodore I sers 

Group (NCIJG) 
ZIODursoDr. 

Newark. DE 19711 

(302)737-1686 

Bob Black 

once a month Newark H.S. 

Brandvwinc Users Group 

PO, Box 10943 

Wilmington, DE 19850 

(302)362-6162 

Kickjeandell 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

I iSO Computer Club 

USO Outreach Center 

207 Beyer Rd., sw 

Washington, DC 20332 
Steven Guenther 
FLORIDA 
Jacksonville Area 
PET Society 

401 Monument Road. #177 
Jacksonville, FL 32211 
Richard Prestien 
6278 SW 1-iih Street 
Miami, Fl. 33144 
South Florida 
PET l 'sers Group 



Dave Young 

7170S.Wllth 

West Hollywood. FL 33023 

(305)987-6982 

i'ETs and Friends 

129 NE 44 St. 

Miami, FL 33137 

Richard Plumer 

Sun Coast VICs 

P.O. Box 1042 

Indian Rocks Beach, FL 

33535 

MarkW'eddell 

Bay Commodore 

Users Group 

c/o Gulf Coast Computer 

Exchange 

241 N. Tvndall Pkwv. 

P.O. Box 6215 

Panama Citv, H. 32401 

t9tii|-H5.fH-il 

Richard Scofield 

Gainesville Commodore 

Users Club 

3604-20ASW31siDr. 

Gainesville, FL 32608 

Louis Wallace 

Brandon Users Group 

lOSAnglewoodDr. 

Brandon, IT- 33511 

(813)685-5138 

Paul Daugherty 

Brandon Commodore 

Users Group 

414 E. Lumsden Rd. 

Brandon. IT- 33511 

Gainesville Commodore 

Users Group 

Santa Fe Community College 

Gainesville, FL 32602 

James E. Birdsell 

Commodore Computer Club 

P.O. Box 21138 

St. Petersburg. FL 33742 

(813)522-25-17 

Chuck Fechko 

Commodore Users Group 

545 E. Park Ave. 

Apt. #2 

Tallahassee, R 32301 

(904)224-6286 

Jim Neill 

The Commodore Connection 

P.O. Box 6684 

West Palm Beach, FL 33405 

El Shift OH 

P.O. Box 548 

Cocoa, FL 32922 

Mike Schnoke 

Sat. mornings/every 4 to 

6 weeks 

Miami 20/64 

1291 1S.W. 49th St. 

Miami, FL 33175 

(305)226-1)85 

Tampa Bay Commodore 

Computer Club 

10208 N. 30th St. 

Tampa, FL 33612 

(H13 ) 977-0877 

Commodore Computer Club 

P.O. Box 9726 

Jacksonville. FL 32208 

(904)764-5457 

David Phillips 

2nd St 4th Tues. of Month 

VIC/64 Heartland Users Group 

1220 Bartow Rd. #23 

Lakeland. FL 33801 

(813)666-2132 

Tom Keough 

4th Wed. of Month at PRC 

64 Educators Users Group 

South 

FDLRS-South 

9220 S.W. 52nd Terrace 

Miami, Fl. 33165 

(305)274-3501 

Dr. Evdie Sloane 



64 Educators Users Group 

North 

16330 N.E. 2nd Ave. 

North Miami Beach. FI. 33162 

(305)944-5548 

Robert Figueroa 

Suncoast 64S 

c/o Little Professor 

Book Center 

2395 U.S. 19 North 

Palm Harbor. FL 33563 

(813) 785-1036 

Curtis Miller 

Lakeland VIC 20 Users Group 

2450 Shady Acres Dr. 

Mulberry, FL 33860 

Broward Commodore 
Users Group 
13 Spinning Wheel Lane 
Tamarac, FL 33319 
(305)726-4390 
Lewis I lorn 

Volusia Ci, Commodore 
Program Exchange 
1612 Revnolds Rd. 
DeLeori Springs, FL 32028 
Rick Stidhain 

The Ultimate 64 Experience 
5740 S.W. 56th Terrace 
Miami, FL 33143 
Sandy Cueto 

Clearwater Commodore Club 
1532 Lemon St. 
Clearwater. FL 33516 
(813)442-0770 
Can- Gould 

The Commodore Advantage 
P.O. Box 18490 
1'ensacola, FL 32523 
(904)4566554 
Deanna Owens 
2nd Fridav of month 
South Tampa Commodore 64 
Users Group 
736 F Second Dr. 
MacdillAFB, 1-1 33621 
Ronald S. Clement 
Ram Rom 84 

1620 Morning Dove Lane 
Engiewood, FL 33533 
(813) 474-9450 
Nana* Kenneally 
Sanihel Commodore Users 
Group (SCUG) 
1119 Periwinkle 
Box 73 

Sanibel. FL 33957 
(813)472-3471 
Phil Belanger 

Charlotte Countv Commodore 
Club (CCCC) 
567 N. El licott Circle 
Port Charlotte, FL 33952 
(813)625-1277 
Lee Truax 

Tampa Commodore Users 
Group 

P.O. Box 8713 
Tampa, FL 33674 
(813)237-2100 
The Class of 64 
c/o The Computer Corner 
5208 66th St., North 
St. Petersburg, FL 33709 
(813)541-1185 
Joe Statafora 
GEORGIA 

VIC Educators Users Group 

Cherokee Count)' Schools 

110 Academy St. 

Gimon, GA30114 

Dr. Al Evans 

Bldg. 68, FLETC 

Glynco.GA 31524 

Richard 1.. Young 

VIC-tims 

P.O. Box 467052 

Atlanta, GA 30346 

(404)922-7088 

Eric Ellison 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 



125 



Golden Isles Commodore 
Users Club 
Bldg. 68, H.ETC 
Glynco.GA 31524 
Richard L. Young 
Commodore Club of Augusta 
1011 River Ridge Rd. 
Api. #14-A 
Augusta, GA 30909 
David Dumas 

Atlanta Commodore 64 

Users Group 

1767 Big Vallev Lane 

Stone Mountain, GA 30083 

(404)981-4253 

Ron Lisoski 

Atlanta 64 Users Group 

P.O. Box 5322 

Atlanta, GA 30307 

Phil J. Autre? 

Albany Commodore Amateur 

Computerist 

P.O. Box 5461 

Albany, GA 31706 

David Via 

HAWAII 

Commodore Users Group 

of Honolulu 

c/o PSH 

824 Bannister St. 

Honolulu, Hi 

(808)848-2088 

3rd Fri. even- month 

20/64 Hawaii 

P.O. Box 966 

Kailua, HI 96734 

Wes Good paster 

Commodore Users Group 

of Honolulu 

1626 Wilder #701 

Honolulu, HI 96822 

(808)848-2088 

jay Calvin (808)944-9380 

IDAHO 

GE IS Computer Club 

c/o Grangeville Higb School 

910 S. D St. 

Grangeville, ID 83530 

Don Kissinger 

S.R.H.S. Computer Club 

c/o Salmon River H.S. 

Riggins, ID 83549 

Barney Poster 

Eagle Rock Commodore 

Users Group 

900 S. Emerson 

Idaho Fails, ID 83401 

Nancy J. Picker 

64 Bug ( Boise Users Group) 

P.O. Box 276 

Boise, ID 83701 

(208)344-6302 

John Rosecrans 

U.G1.L— User Groups of 

Lower Idaho 

Rt4 

Rupert, ID 83350 

Sean Brixey, President 

Commodore Users Group 

310 Emerald Dr. 

Kellogg, 10 83837 

(208)784-8751 

Grant Bewick 

64-B.U.G. (Boise Users Group > 

403 Thatcher St. 

Boise, ID 83702 

(208)384-1423 

Rick Ohnsman 

PocateUo Commodore Users 

Group 

1250 E. Benton 

Pocatello. ID 83201 

(208) 232-1607 

Richard I larket 

ILLINOIS 

Shelly WernikoiT 

2731 N. Milwaukee 



Avenue 

Chicago. 1L 60647 

vie 20/64 Users 

Support Group 

c/o David R. Tarvin 

114S. Clark Street 

r>ana,lL6255- 

(217)562-4568 

Central Illinois PET 

User Group 

635 Maple 

Mt. Zion. II. 62549 

(2D 864-5320 

Comactjim Oldfield 

ASM/TED User Group 

2D0S-Ceniurv 

Rantoul, H 61866 

(217 )893-t57- 

Contact: Brant Anderson 

PET VIC Club (PVC) 

40 S. Lincoln 

Mundelein, 1L 60060 

Contact: Paul Schmidt, 

President 

Rockford Area PET Users Group 

1608 Benton Street 

Rockford. 1L 61107 

Commodore Users Club 

1707 East Main St. 

Olney. IL 62450 

Contact: David E. Lawless 

Chicago Commodore 64 

Users & Exchange Group 

P.O.Box H233 

Chicago, IL 60614 

Jim Robinson 

fox Valley PET Users Group 

833 Willow St. 

UkeintlieHills.il. 60102 

(312)658-7321 

Art DeKneel' 

The Commodore 64 

Users Group Inc. 

P.O. Box 46464 

Lincolnwcxxl, 11. 60646 

(312)583-1629 

David Tarn Kin 

R\P 64ATC Regional 

Assoc, of Programmers 

10721 S. Union 

Oak ijwn.lL 60453 

Bob Hughes 

The Kankakee Hackers 

RR#l,Box279 

St. Anne, IL 60964 

(815)933-4-107 

Rich westerman 

WIPOG 

Rt. 5. Box 75 

Quincv.ll. 62301 

(217) 656-3671 

Edward Mills 

Papug- Peoria Area Pet 

Users Group 

6 Apple Tree Lane 

East Peoria, IL 61611 

(309)673-6635 

Max Taylor 

2nd Fri, of Month 

Mclienry County 

Commodore Club 

227 E. Terra Cotu Ave. 

Crystal Lake, IL 60014 

(815) 455-3942 

John Katkus 

2nd Sat. it C. Like Ambutal 

Ml. Vernon Commcxlore Users 

Group (MVCUG) 

P.O. Box 512 

Ml. Vernon, IL 62864 

Commodore 64 Users Club 

104 Susan Lane 

Canerville. IL 62918 

(6181985-4710 

Doyne Horsley 

Illinois Valley Commodore 

Users Group 

2330- 12th St. 

Peru, 11.61354 



(815)223-5141 

Brian Foster 

Champaign-Urbana 

Commodore Users Group 

2006 Crescent Dr. 

Champaign, IL 61821 

(2F) 352-968I 

Steve Gast - 

COMCOE (Commodore Club 

of Evanston ) 

2108 Sherman Ave. 

Evanston, IL 60201 

Jim Salsbury 

Pox Vallev 64 Users Group 

P.O. Box 28 

N. Aurora, IL 60542 

(312) 898-2779 

Frank Chrisiensen 

Lst Thursday of month 

Springfield PET Users Group 

(SPUG) 

3 1 16 Concord 

Springfield 11.62-0-1 

(217)753-8500 

Bill Eardley 

3rd Fri. each month 7 p.m. 

Fox Vallev 64 Users Group 

P.O. Box 28 

No. Aurora, IL 60542 

(312)898-2779 

Frank Christensen 

lst Tliurs, of month 7-10 p.m. 

Commodore SIG Cache 

Box C-176 

323 S. Franklin, #804 

Chicago, IL 60606 

(312)685-0994 

Herb Swanson 

3rd Sun. of month 11 a.m. 

-1 p.m. 

INDIANA 

PET/64 Users 

10136 E. 96di St. 

Indianapolis, in 46256 

017)842-6353 

Jerry Brinson 

Cardinal Sales 

6225 Coffman Road 

Indianapolis, IN 46268 

(3r)298-9650 

Contact: Carol Wheeler 

CHUG (Commodore 

I lardware Users Group) 

12104 Meadow Lane 

Oaklaiidnii, IN 46236 

Contact: Ted Powell 

VIC Indv Club 

P.O. Box 11543 

Indianapolis, IN 46201 

(317)357-6906 

Fredlnihatisen 

Northern Indiana 

Commodore Enthusiasts 

927 S. 26th St. 

South Bend, IN 46615 

Eric R. Bean 

Commodore Users Group 

1020 Michigan Ave. 

Loganspon, IN 46947 

(219)722-5205 

Mark Bender 

Computer Workshop VIC 

20/64 Club 

282 S. 600 W. 

Hebron, IN 46341 

(219)988-4535 

Man- O'Bringer 

The National Science Clubs 

of America 

Commodore Users Division 

P.O. Box 10621 

Merrillville, IN 46411 

Brian Leplev or Jeff Brown 

East Central Indiana VIC User 

Group 

Rural Route #2 

Portland, IN -17371 

Stephen Erwin 

National VIC 20 Program 

Exchange 



102 Hickorv Coun 

Portland. IN 47371 

(219)726-4202 

Stephen Erwin 

Commcxlore Computer Club 

3814 Terra Trace 

Evansville, IN 47711 

(812)477-0739 

John Patrick, President 

Commodore 64 L'sers Group 

912 South Brown Ave. 

Terre Haute, IN 47803 

(812)234-5099 

Dennis Graham 

Seymour Peekers 

c/o D&L Camera Shop 

108 N. Chestnut 

Seymour. IN 47274 

Dennis Peters 

VIC/64 Users Group 

c/o Delco Remy Div. General 

Motors 

2401 Columbus Ave. 

Anderson, IN 46014 

(317)378-3016 

Richard Clifton 

3rd Wed. orThurs. of month 

Commodore Owners Of 
Lafayette (COOL!) 
20 Patrick Lane 
West Lafavette, IN 47906 
(317)743-3410 
Ross lndelicato 
Fulton County Commodore 
Users 

1705-3 Madison 
Rochester, IN 46975 
(219)223-4430 
Jim Tyler 

2nd Thurs, of month 
IOWA 

Commodore User Group 
114 8th St. 
Ames, !A 50010 
Quad Citv Commodore Club 
P.O. Box 3994 
Davenport, IA 52808 
(319)242-1496 
-Mike Hoeper 
3rd Tues. 

Siouxland Commodore Club 
2700 Sheridan St. 
Sioux Citv, IA 51 104 
(712)2587903 
Gary Johnson 
lst & 3rd .Monday of month 
421 W. 6th St. 
Waterloo, IA 50702 
(319)232-1062 
Frederick Volker 

Commcxlore Computer Users 

Group of Iowa 

Box 3140 

Des Moi nes, IA 50316 

(515) 263-0963 or 287-1378 

Laura .Miller 

Commo-Hawk Commodore 

Users Group 

P.O. Box 2724 

Cedar Rapids, IA 52406 

Vern Rolen 

Newton Commodore 

Users Group 

320W-9ihSt.,S. 

Newton, IA 50208 

(515)792-0814 

David Schmidt 

1st Wed. 

KANSAS 

Wichita Area PET 

Users Group 

2231 Bullinger 

Wichita, KS 67204 

(316)838-0518 

Contact: Mel Zandler 

Kansas Commodore 

Computer Club 

101 S. Burch 



Olathe, KS 66061 
Contact: Paul B. Howard 

Commodore Users Group 
6050 S. 183 St. West 
Viola, KS 67149 
Walter Lounsben' 

Walnut Valley Commodore 
User Group 
1003 S. 2nd St 
Arkansas City, KS 67005 
Bob Morris 

Salt Citv Commodore Club 
P.O. Box 2644 
Hutchinson, KS 67501 
Wendell Hinkson 
KENTUCKY 
NIC Connection 
1010 S. Elm 
Henderson, KY 42420 
Jim Kemp 

Louisville Users of 

Commodore KY. (LUCKY) 

PO. Box 22244 

Louisville, KY 40222 

(502)425-2847 

2nd Tues. of Month 

The Bowling Green 

Commcxlore Users Group 

Route 1 1, Creekside Apt. #6 

Bowling Green, KY 42101 

(502)781-9098 

Alex Filzpairick 

C*BUG — Commodore 

Bardstown L"ser Group 

P.O. Box 165 

Bardstown, KY 40004 

(502)348-6380 

Patrick Kinley 

Glasgow Commodore Users 

Group 

P.O. Box 154 

Glasgow, KY 42 141 

Steve England 

LOUISIANA 

Franklin Parish Computer 

Club 

#3 Fair Ave. 

Wlnnisboro, LA 71295 

James D. Mays, Sr. 

NONA 

917 Gordon St, 

New Orleans, LA 70117 

(504)9487643 

Kenneth McGruder, Sr. 

VIC 20 Users Group 

5064 Bowdon St. 

Marrero, LA 70072 

(504)341-5305 

Wayne D. Lowery, R.N. 

64-ClubNews 

5200 Corporate Blvd. 

Baton Rouge, LA 70808 

(504)925-5870 

Tom Parsons 

3rd Tues. of month at CWA 

Commodore Users Group 

of Oachita 

P.O. Box 175 

Swaric, IA 71281 

(318)343-8044 

Beckie Walker 

Ark-Li-Tex Commodore 64 

Club 

5515 Fairfax 

Shreveport, L\ 71108 

(318)636-3611 

Bill Walker 

Every other Wed, 6:30 p.m. 

Commcxlore 64 Users Group 

P.O. Box 1422 

Baton Rouge, LA 70821 

Richard Hood 

3rd Tues, of month 

MAINE 

COM-V1CS (CommodoreAjC 

Users Group) 
RED #1, Box 2086 

Hebron, ME 04238 
(207)966-3641 



126 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct, 1984 



Paul Lodge 

lsi Vied. & 3rd Thurs. 

Your Commodore Users 

Group 

Box 611 

Wcstbrook, ME 04092 

(207) 854-4579 

Mike Precise 

Nonhwoods Commodore 

Users Group 

740 Main St. 

Van Buren, ME 04785 

Diane Porter 
So. ME. 64 
10 Walker St. 
Portland, ME 04102 
(207)761-1626 
Ed Moore 
Compumania 
HI North St. 
Saco, ME 04072 
(207 (282-74 IB 
Richard L. Nadeau 
MARYLAND 
Assoc, of Personal 
Computer Users 
50 14 Rodman Road 
Bc.thi-.sda, MD 20016 
Blue TUSK 
700 Eastjoppa Road 
Baltimore, MD 21204 
Coniactjlm Hauff 

[ louse of Commodore 

8835 Satvr Hill Road 

Baltimore, MD 21234 

Contact Ernest J. Fischer 

Long Lines Computer Club 

323 N.Charles St., Rm. 201 

Baltimore, MD 21201 

Gene Moff 

VIC & 64 Users Group 

The Bovds Connection 

21000 Clarksburg Rd. 

Bovds, MD 20841 

(301)428-3174 

Tom DeReggi 

RockviUe VIC/64 Users Group 

P.O. Box 8805 

Rockville.MD 20856 

<301)231- T 823 

Tom Pounds 

Tile Compucats' Commodore 

Computer Clul> 

680 W.Bel Air Ave. 

Aberdeen, MD 21001 

(301>2"2-0-T2 

Betty Jane Schueler 

Westinghouse BW1 

Commodore User Group 

Attn: L. Barron 

Mail Stop 5320 

P.O. Box 1693 

Baltimore, MD 21203 

1 ll.'G (1 lagersiown Users 

Group) 

23 Coventry Lane 

Hagerstowh. MD 21740 

(301)^97-9728 

Joseph Rutkowski 

The Montgomery Q, 

Commodore Computer Soc. 

P.O. Box 644-1 

Silver Springs. MD 20906 

(301 1 946-1564 

Meryle Pounds 

Commodore Users Group 

of Annapolis 

P.O. Box 9726 

Arnold, MD 21012 

(301)974-4548 

The Software Co. 

Gaithersburg C 64 Users Group 

1293" 7 Pickering Dr. 

Germantown, Ml) 208 4 

(301) -128-3328 

RuSSel Jarosinski 

3rd Thurs. Gbuig Library 

lumpers 2064s 

"'837 B&A Blvd. 



Glen Burnie.MD 21061 

(301) "68-1892 

Walt Marhefka 

Jumpers Mall, 1st Monday 

Commodore 64 Users Group 

11209 Tack I louse Court 

Potomac, MD 20854 

(301)983-8199 

Jorge Montalvan 

VICliquc (Linthicum I (eights) 

105A Conduit St. 

Annapolis, MD 21401 

(301)263-8568 

Pat Foley 

m.i.t.a.g.s.. 7pm Mon, varys 

Southern MD Commodore 

Users Group 

6800KillarnevSi. 

Clinton, MD 20735 

(301)868-6536 

Tom I lelmke 

lslTues. of month 7:30pm 

EdLson Commodore 

Users Group 

•431-1 Oxford Dr. 

Suitland.MD 20746 

(301)423-7155 

Bill Foley 

Naval Research Laboratory 

Bay-Cug-Balti more Area 

Commodore Users 

4605 Vogt Ave. 

Baltimore, MD 21206 

(301)325-2156 

Michael M. Broumberg 

Harford County Commodore 

Users Group 

P.O. Box 209 

Fallston.MD 21047 

t3l)HK-9-3583 

Kim Loyd 

1st Monday of month 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Eastern Massachusetts 

VIC Users Group 

c/o Frank Ordway 

7 Flagg Road 

Marlboro, MA 02173 

VIC Users Group 
c/o llene Noffman-Sholar 
193 Garden St. 
Needham, MA 02192 
Commodore Users Club 
Stoughton iiiglt School 
Stoughton, MA 02072 
Contaci: Mike Lennon 
Berkshire PET Lovers 
CBM Users Group 
Taconiclligh 
Pittsfield, MA 01201 
The Boston Computer 
Society 

Three Center Plaza 
Boston, MA 02108 
(617) 367-8080 
Man' E. McGinn 

Masspet Commodore 
Users Group 
P.O. Box 28.3 
Taunton, MA 02780 
Harry Flaxman 
Raytheon Commodore 
Users Group 
Raytheon Company 
Harwell Rd. GHA-6 
Bedford, MA 01730 
John Rudy 

Commodore 64 Users 
Group of The Berkshire's 
184 Highland Ave, 
Pittsfield, MA 01201 
Fd Rucinski 
\TC Interface Club 
48 Van Cliff Ave, 
Brockton. MA 02401 
Bernle Robichaud 
Cape Cod 6-1 Users Group 
358 Forres! Rd. 
S V&rmouth.MA 02664 
1(800)225-7136 



Jim Close 

(In MA call) 1 (800) 352-7787 

The Cursor Club 

442MtilpufRd. 

Lunenburg, MA 01462 

(617)582-1056 

John 

Pioneer Vallev VIC/64 Club 

34 Bates St. 

Westfield, MA 01085 

(413)562-1027 

Marvin Vale 

3rd Thurs, of month 

EM 20/64 Users Group 

36 Buckman St. 

Woburn, MA01BOI 

John Chaplain 

Commodore Users Group 

c/o Best Business Equipment 

269 Lincoln Si 

Worcester, MA 01605 

Berkshire Home for Little 

PET Users 

401 PomerovAve. 

Pittsfield, .MA 01201 

Tim Auxier 

Pioneer Valley VIC Club 
34 Bates Ave. ' 
Westfield, MA 01085 

(413)562-1027 
Marvin Yale 
CUG of MA 
U32 X. Ridge Rd. 
Westfield, MA 01085 
(413)568-2228 
Paul & Jenny 
MICHIGAN 
David Liem 
14361 Warwick Street 
Detroit, Mi 48223 
VIC Users Club 
University of Michigan 
School of Public Health 
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 
Contact: John Gannon 
Commodore User Club 
32303 Columbus Drive 
Warren, MI 48093 
Contact: Robert Steinbrecher 
Commodore Users Group 
c/o Family Computer 
3947 W. 12 Mile Rd. 
Berkley, Ml 48072 
VJC for Business 
6027 Orchard Ci. 
Lansing, MI 48910 
Mike .Vlarotta 
South Compuler Club 
South Jr. High School 
45201 Owen 
Belleville. Ml 48111 
Ronald Ruppen 
Commodore Users Group 
c/o Elton Rapid-; Medical Clinic 
101 Sptcerville Hwy. 
Eaton Rapids, Ml 48827 
Albert Meinke III, M.D. 
South East Michigan Pet 
Users Group 
'Box 214 

Farmington, Ml 48024 
Norm Eisenberg 
Commodore Computer Club 
4106 Eastman Rd. 
Midland, Ml 48640 
(517)835-5130 
JohnWalley 
9:30 p.m. Sept/May 
VIC, 64, PET Users Group 
8-139 ArlisRd. 
Union Lake, Ml 48085 
363-8539 
Bert Searing 

COMP 

486 Michigan Ave. 

Marvsville, Ml 48040 

(313)364-6804 

M. Gauthier 



Ann Arbor Commodore 

Users Group 

Ann Arbor, Ml 48103 

(313)994-1751 

An Shaw 

3rd Tues. 7:30-10:00 

DAB Computer Club 

P.O. Box 542 

Watervliet, Ml 49098 

(616)463-5457 

Dermis Burlingham 

West Michigan Commodores 

c/o R. Taber 

1952 Cleveland Ave., S.W. 

Wyoming, Ml 49509 

(616 1 458-9-24 

Gene Traas 

Debug 

P.O. Box 196 

Berrien Springs, MI 49103 

(616)471-1882 

Herbert Edward 

1 .ast Thursday of Month 

Jackson Commodore 

Computer Club 

201 S. Grinnell St. 

Jackson, Ml 49203 

Alfred Bruey 

List Thur. of Month 7:30 p.m. 

SMCUG 

1002PfauSi. 

Mankato. Ml 56001 

(507)625-6942 

Dean Otto 

SFM 64 

25015 Five Mile #3 

Redl'ord. Ml 48239 

(313)537-4163 

Gary Groeller 

CA.TO. 
17606 Valade 
Riverview, MI 48192 

Dean Tidwell 

Mid-Michigan 

Commcxlore Club 

Clare, MI 

(517)386-3429 

Virgil Graham 

3rd Mon. ?pm Clare H.S. 

Michigan's Commodore 64 

Users Group (MCUG) 

P.O. Box 539 

E. Detroit, Ml 48021 

(313)773-6302 

William G.Osipoff 

Michigan's Commodore 64 

Users Group 

P.O. Box 539 

East Detroit, MI 48021 

20050 Winchester 

Southlteld, MI 48076 

(313)354-7224 

Sieve l.epsetz 353-1 130 

Slipped Disk, Inc. 

3 1044 John R 

Madison Heights, MI 48071 

(313) 583-9803 

MINNESOTA 

MUPET (Minnesota Users 

of PET 1 

P.O. Box 179 

Annandale, MX 55302 

c/o Jon T Minerich 

Twin Cities Commodore 

Computer Club 

6623 Ives Lane 

Maple Grove, MN 55369 

(612)424-2425 

Contact: Rollie Schmidt 

Brainerd Area Commodore 
Users Group 
1219 S.E. 1 lth St. 
Brainerd, MX 56401 
(218)829-0805 
Norm Saavedra 
1st Thurs. 6 p.m. & 
3rd Sat. 10 a.m. 

bike Superior Commcxlore 

1936 Lawn St 

Duluth.MN 55812 



(218)728-3224 

Peter Roufs 

Heartland Area Computer 

Cooperative 

Rouic4,Box204 

Little Falls, MX 56345 

(612)632-5511 

Robert Walz 

MISSISSIPPI 

Commodore Biloxi 

User Group (ComBUG) 

Universal Computer Services 

3002 Hwy, 90 East 

Ocean Springs, MS 39364 

(601)875-1173 

John Lassen 

Commodore Computer Club 

Southern Station Box 10076 

1 lattiesburg, MS 38401 

(6011268-7585 

Ami rew Holder 

Commodore Biloxi 

Users Group 

c/o Universal Computer 

Services 

3002 Hwy. 90 East 

Ocean Springs, MS 39564 

(601)875-1173 

John Lassen 

MISSOURI 

KCPUG 

(Commodore User Group of 

Kansas Citv) 

P.O. Box 36492 

Kansas City, MO 64111 

(816)252-7628 

Salvadore 

Commodore User Group 

of St. Louis 

Box 6653 

Si. Louis, MO 63125-0653 

Dan Weidman, New Members 

1541 Swallowtail Dr. 

St. Louis, MO 

V1C1XFONET 

P.O. Box 1069 

Branson, MO 65616 

(417)334-6099 

Jory Sherman 

Worth County PET Users 

Group 

Gram Citv, MO 

(siejse^si 

David I lardy 
Mid-Missouri 
Commodore Club 
"'SO E. Park Lane 
Columbia, MO 65201 
(314)474-2868 
Jim Whitacre 

Joplin Commodore 
Computers Users Group 
422 S. Florida Ave. 
Joplin, MO 64801 
R. D, Connely 
MOARK Commodore 
Users Group 
P.O. Box 504 
Golden. MO 65658 
(417 I 271-3293 
Marshall Turner 

Commodore PAC 

Horace Mann Room 202 
Marwille, MO 64468 
(8l6) 582-4498 
Patricia I.ucido 
MONTANA 
Powder River 
Computer Club 
Powder River County 
High School 
Broadus, MT 59317 
Contact: Jtrrt Sampson 
Commcxlore L'ser CI ub 
1 109 West Broadway 
Butte, MT 5970] 
Contacts Mike McCarthy 



COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS Sept./Oct. 1984 127 



SERIOUS SOFTWARE 
for the 
COMMODORE 64™ 

For Science, Engineering, end 
Students In these Fields 

A new concept In software systems to tap more of ihs 
potential of the CM. Programs designed primarily as 
aids In learning, they can be used Tor repeated exer- 
cises In matrix operations. Create your own problems 
and use the program to check your hand calculations. 

The programs can be augmented by a aeries of 
optional Application Notes which point out areas in 
which matrix algebra Is used; provide Information 
about future programs In the series and opportunity 
for users to exchange Improvements and Ideas; 
publish Improvements we make to existing programs 
In the library (the copy you order will not be made ob- 
solete by newer versions of a program); and discuss 
problems associated with limitations of machine 
calculations. 

The first program la now available on disk lor $49.95; It 
Includes unary and binary matrix operations: trace, 
transpose, norms |3 types) add, power, multiply, 
matrix transpose times matrix. You supply the 
matrices. Friendly format. 

Also Included la current Application Note, 
IreelSubscrlptlon Information will be Included). 
Purchasers of first disk in series will be considered 
charter customers end receive epproprlete discounts" 
on future offerings (Including registration fees at 
special seminars - information In Application Notes). 

Mall orders (Include name/street/ZIP) to: 
W(Q Systems 
P.O. Box 7-t:iS 
Savannah, GA. 31418 

'Offer ends December 31, 1 984 

Certified check or money order, please. 
Include S2 postage and handling 
Ga. residents add 4% sales tax. 

Commodore 64 Is a trademark of Commodore 
Electronics Ltd. 



GRAPH-TERM 64 

A GRAPHICS TERMINAL 

PROGRAM FOR 

THECOMMODORE-64 

GRAPH-TERM 64 is a100% machine- 
language program which 

• plots hi-res graphs generated by a 
mainframe computer or the C-64 in 
standard Tektronix' 1 format 

• downloads text (36K) or plot files 
(20K) 

• creates instant replays of text or 
graphs at high speed, slow motion 
or stop action 

• creates hard copies of plots on the 
Commodore 1520 Plotter 

I n addition, the machine language 
subroutines used in GRAPH-TERM 64 
a re documented so youcanusethem 
in your own programs to create fast, 
compact piot files and to drive the plot- 
ter at top speed. 

$49.95 U.S. 

TO ORDER 

Specify diskor tape 

Add $4.00 postage and handling for 

U.S. and Canada 

Other foreign orders add 20% 

Michigan residents add 4% sales tax 

BENNETT SOFTWARE CO. 

3465 Yellowstone Dr. 

__ Ann Arbor, Ml 48105 - 
^S- (313)665-4156 & 

Dealer inquiries invited 

The 1520 plotter and the Commodore 

64 are products of Commodore 

Business Machines. 



departments 

("hat" does not compute 



When we make a mistake, this 
is where we fix it. 

Issue 30 (July/August) 

Editor's Notes 

On page 12 our illustrious editor wrote, "If you 
gut yourself;! modem... you can hook up your 
computer to your touchtone telephone." First, 
change "modem" to read "Commodore 
modem". Then change "touchtone" to read 
"modular". 

Issue 30 (July/August) 

Home University 

The following printing errors should be cor- 
rected as follows: 

(1) Equation (16) should read ianQ=..., 
instead of tan "'9= ... 

(2) In the first block of the flow chart the 
subscripts 0,1,2 are missing under the as. 

Issue 30 

PEEK Magazine 

advertisement 

We have received numerous complaints from 
readers who sent money to PEEK Magazine but 
have not, as yet, received either a product, a 
refund or a response, Please let us know if you 
have had a similar problem. 

Issue 30 

"A New World Opens Up" 

Our records for the Canadian telecommunica- 
tions bulletin boards (page 37) were evidently 
pretty moldy. Canadian ISBS enthusiast Richard 
Bradley cal 1 ed us with the following corrections: 

Steve Punter's bulletin board in Mlssissauga is 
open from 6 p.m. to 9 a.m. weekdays. 

NORTEC'S sysop is now Steve Mane, the new 
access number is 416-487-2593 and the hours of 
operation are a straight 24 hours. 

The TPUG BBS, located at 1912AAvenue Road, 
Toronto. Ontario M5M 4A1, also has a new sysop, 
Tom Shevlin. The new access number is 416- 
429-6044. and the bulletin board is open 24 
hours to active members of TPUG. 

New bulletin boards, according to Richard, 
include: 

Bradley Brothers BBS 
% Richard and David Bradley 
14" Roe Avenue 
Toronto. Ontario M5M 21 18 
messages: 416-487-5833 
programs: 416-481-9047 
hours of operation: 24 hours 
Cost: $10 per year 

Cl-TR/Commodore BBS 

sysop: Bob Saint 

6 p.m. to 8 a.m. weekdays 

2-t hours weekends 

416-366-2069 

RTC BBS 

sysop: Mike Mitescho 

6 p.m. to 9 a.m. Mon-Sat 

24 hours Sunday 

■06-884-6198 C 



departments 






advertisers' index 






Header 




Page Service 




No. 


No. 


Academy Software 


95 


16 


All Systems Go 


93 


15 


Batteries Included 


19 


8 


Bennett Software 


128 


26 


Bible Research Systems 


6 


2 


Bytes & Pieces 


24 


11 


Cardco 


IBC 


27 


Cheatsheet Products 


112 


21 


Comal Users Group 31, 35 


* 


Commodore 


IFC 


* 


& 1, 15, 36-3 


7.BC 




Computerist's Bookcart 


109 


18 


Covox 


112 


22 


Cow Bay Computing 


111 


19 


Custom 






Programming Group 


18 


6 


Handic Software 


11 


4 


M icrotechn ology 






Unlimited 


18 


* 


Microware 24 


,104 


10, 


Distributing 




17 


Midnite Software 


35 


13 


Midwest Software 


31 


12 


Protecto 






Enterprizes 


74-77 


14 


Public Domain 


111 


20 


Smada 


114 


23 


St. Croix Valley 






Electronics 


114 


24 


Sota Enterprises 28, 29 


* 


SubLOGIC 


5,13 


1,5 


Systems Management 






Associates 


21 


9 


W/G Systems 


128 


* 


*No reader service number at 






advertiser's request 







Circle Reader Service No. 26 



CARDCO "NOW" SOFTWARE 

. . . available now for your Commodore-64 and more! 



A fine line of software developed by CARDCO for your 
Commodore-64 computer with all the features you should 
expect in much more costly software. CARDCO's "NOW" 
Series provides many unique and exclusive features and are 
packaged for easy reference, simple storage, instant 
recognition. 

"WRITE NOW" . . . WORD PROCESSOR SOFTWARE ... An 

excellent time saver, CARDCO offers the "Write Now" C/ (32 
word processor program with built-in 80 column display. You 
see exactly what will print. All special codes can be 
transmitted to printers maintaining justification. Easy full-screen 
editing; works with any printer. 

"MAIL NOW" . . . MAILING LIST SOFTWARE . . . CARDCO's 
D/ (M "Mail Now" quickly (In memory) sorts by zip, category, 
name and state; fully compatible with "Write Now". Other fine 
features include: user-oriented; menu-driven operation; each 
disk supports 600 entries. Format can print single, double or 
triple labels across. 

"SPELL NOW" . . . Cardware D/ (M ... a fine program 
designed as a spell checker for use with "Write Now" on the 
Commodore-64. A 34.000 word dictionary with two additional 
user constructed dictionaries. Menu-driven operation for ease 
of use. And "Spell Now" allows you to see each misspelled 
word In the context of your document for correction. 

"FILE NOW" ... D/ (» ... is a totally integrated, menu-driven 
database software package which interfaces with both the 
"Write Now!" for the 64 and the "Spell Now." 40K of working 
storage space is available with "File Now". "File Now" 



appears on the screen as index cards for easier 
manipulation of your data base; you see 5 index cards at a 
time. Cards are user defineable, i.e., user determines what 
goes where on the "index cards" and can sort by any given 
field. Every card has a general topic field which allows for 
quick sorting through cards. 

"GRAPH NOW" INCLUDING . . . "PAINT NOW" ... D/ 06 
. . . This disk-based graphic/logo generator is totally menu- 
driven. Allows for the development of pies, charts, bar 
graphs and other vivid graphic illustrations. Also has the 
ability to design, and print logos and high resolution 
pictures. "Commodore- ready"; interfaces with CARDCO'S 
"Write Now" Word Processor, "Mall Now", "Spell Now" and 
"File Now". 

Write for illustrated literature and prices or see CARDCO 
Computer Accessories and Software wherever Computers 
are sold. 




7 -iL> 



(> i 



card co, inc. 



300 S. Topeka Wichita, Kansas 67202 (316)267-6525 
"The world's largest manufacturer of Commodore accessories." 

Commodore'" is a registered trademark ol Commodore Business Systems. Inc. 

Circle Reader Service No. 27 



FEATURES 


COMMODORE 64- 


APPLE He™ 


IBM PCjr™ 


ATARI 800XL™ 


Price' 

Built-in Memory 

Typewriter Keyboard 

Upper/Lower Case 
Programmable Function Keys 


$219 
64K 

YES 

(66 Keys) 

YES 

YES 


$699 

64K 

YES 
(62 Keys) 

YES 

NO 


$669 
64K 

"CHICKLET" 

(62 Keys) 

YES 

YES 


$299 
64K 

YES 

(61 Keys) 

YES 
NO 


AUDIO 


Polyphonic Tones 
Music Synthesizer 
Hi-Fi Output 


YES 
YES 
YES 


NO 
NO 
NO 


YES 
NO 

YES 


YES 
NO 
YES 



VIDEO 










TV Output 

Video Monitor Output 


YES 
YES 


EXTRA COST 

YES 


EXTRA COST 
EXTRA COST 


YES 

YES 


INPUT/OUTPUT 


Intelligent. I/O Bus 
RS-232 Communications 
"Smart" Peripherals 


YES 
YES" 

YES 


NO 

EXTRA COST 

NO 


NO 
YES" 
NO 


YES 

EXTRA COST 
YES 



"Prices shown an' nimmrin n'tajl and may vary sliuhlly in different markets- 



First you need the right input. 

Like $219. That's what the 
Commodore 64™ costs. It's about one third 
the price of the Apple lie™ or the IBM® PCjr™ 

And 64K. That's how much memory 
the Commodore 64 has. It's also how much 
memory Apple lie and the IBM PCjr have. 

This computer lesson is brought to you 
as a public service by Commodore (certainly 
not by Apple or IBM), the only computer 
company that can afford to show you a chart 
like the one above. 

But what you can't see above are the 



^ 




thousands of software programs that make 
the Commodore 64 fully capable of doing 
anything any "triple the price" computer can 
do; for fun or profit, for every member of the 
family; anything from soccer to spread 
sheets to space exploration. 

Because the Commodore is so 
affordable, you can load up on Commodore 
peripherals. Like a disk drive, a printer or a 
telephone modem. All together they cost just 
a tad more than an IBM PCjr by itself . With 
no peripherals. 

No wonder Commodore sells more 
computers than Apple and IBM combined. 

ft commodore 

v COMPUTERS 

IT'S NOT HOW LITTLE IT COSTS, 
IT'S HOW MUCH VOU GET.